Structure-Electronic Property Relationships of 2D Ruddlesden-Popper Tin- And Lead-based Iodide Perovskites

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Abstract

Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are receiving considerable attention for applications in photovoltaics, largely due to their versatile composition and superior environmental stability over three-dimensional (3D) perovskites, but show much lower power conversion efficiencies. Hence, further understanding of the structure-property relationships of these 2D materials is crucial for improving their photovoltaic performance. Here, we investigate by means of first-principles calculations the structural and electronic properties of 2D lead and tin Ruddlesden-Popper perovskites with general formula (BA)2An-1BnI3n+1, where BA is the butylammonium organic spacer, A is either methylammonium (MA) or formamidinium (FA) cations, B represents Sn or Pb atoms, and n is the number of layers (n = 1, 2, 3, and 4). We show that the band gap progressively increases as the number of layers decreases in both Sn- and Pb-based materials. Through substituting MA by FA cations, the band gap slightly opens in the Sn systems and narrows in the Pb systems. The electron and hole carriers show small effective masses, which are lower than those of the corresponding 3D perovskites, suggesting high carrier mobilities. The structural distortion associated with the orientation of the MA or FA cations in the inorganic layers is found to be the driving force for the induced Rashba spin-splitting bands in the systems with more than one layer. From band alignment diagrams, the transfer process of the charge carriers in the 2D perovskites is found to be from smaller to higher number of layers n for electrons and oppositely for holes, in excellent agreement with experimental studies. We also find that, when interfaced with 3D analogues, the 2D perovskites could function as hole transport materials.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)15328-15337
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Volume12
Issue number13
Early online date11 Mar 2020
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020

Keywords

  • band alignment
  • DFT
  • halide perovskites
  • lead
  • Ruddlesden-Popper
  • tin

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)

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