Structural insights into novel therapeutic deep eutectic systems with capric acid using 1D, 2D NMR and DSC techniques with superior gut permeability

Bayan Alkhawaja, Faisal Al-Akayleh, Jehad Nasereddin, Muhammad Kamran, Tim Woodman, Zaid Al-Rubaye, Nidal Qinna, Mayyas Al-Remawi, Ali R. Olaimat

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Therapeutic deep eutectic solvents (THEDSs) are the best exemplification of green alternative formulations of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) that offer superlative properties of APIs. Previously, THEDESs of risperidone, fentanyl and levofloxacin with capric acid (CA) were developed by our group. These APIs share cyclic tertiary amine nuclei. Herein, DESs of two drugs bearing cyclic tertiary amine nucleus, namely, droperidol and aripiprazole, in the presence of CA, were investigated as model drugs. Comprehensive analyses were conducted using liquid-state 1D and 2D NMR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to elucidate the regiochemistry and thermodynamic mechanisms bringing about those THEDESs. Everted gut sac technique was used to study the flux of the developed THEDESs. 1D and 2D NMR techniques analyses revealed the importance of cyclic tertiary amine nuclei in forming interactions with CA. This was confirmed by the downfield shift of the protons proximal to the tertiary amine groups compared to the individual drugs. Diffusion NMR analysis (DOSY) showed a significant reduction in the diffusion coefficient of CA in the mixed system compared with CA in isolation. Thermal analysis of the two drugs revealed that the drugs have a low tendency to recrystallise upon melting but rather vitrify from a melt to form an amorphous solid. Interestingly, the superior absorption and flux of the THEDES formulation of droperidol was demonstrated using the ERIS. Collectively, this work provides a green method to attain liquid formulations of APIs with enhanced pharmacokinetic features.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)14793-14806
Number of pages14
JournalRSC Advances
Issue number21
Early online date7 May 2024
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 7 May 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering

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