We studied the structural, electronic, and optical properties of the In(2)O(3)(ZnO)(n) system by a combination of high-resolution electron microscopy, image simulation, and density-functional theory calculation. We found that the In(2)O(3)(ZnO)(n) system has a polytypoid structure that consists of wurtzite InZn(n)O(n)., slabs separated by single In-O octahedral layers. These octahedral layers are inversion domain boundaries and satisfy the electronic octet rule. The InZn(n)O(n+1) slabs contain another type of boundary that inverts the polarities again. This boundary prefers a zigzag modulated structure and also obeys the electronic octet rule. We also found that the red-shift in optical transitions for the In(2)O(3)(ZnO)(n) system as compared to individual In(2)O(3) and ZnO systems is because the symmetry-forbidden band-edge transitions in In(2)O(3) are overcome by the formation of superlattices, with ZnO contributions to the top of the valence band. We further found that increasing n results in an enhanced valence-band maximum in the ZnO region, while the conduction-band minimum becomes more localized on the InO(2) layers, which introduces confinement to electron carriers. Such enhanced localization explains why Zn-rich compounds (higher n) exhibit lower conductivity.
|Title of host publication||34th Ieee Photovoltaic Specialists Conference, Vols 1-3|
|Place of Publication||New York|
|Number of pages||3|
|Publication status||Published - 2009|
|Name||IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference|