## Abstract

In this paper we study two models of labelled random trees that generalise the original unlabelled Schröder tree. Our new models can be seen as models for phylogenetic trees in which nodes represent species and labels encode the order of appearance of these species, and thus the chronology of evolution. One important feature of our trees is that they can be generated efficiently thanks to a dynamical, recursive construction. Our first model is an increasing tree in the classical sense (labels increase along each branch of the tree and each label appears only once). To better model phylogenetic trees, we relax the rules of labelling by allowing repetitions in the second model.

For each of the two models, we provide asymptotic theorems for different characteristics of the tree (e.g. degree of the root, degree distribution, height, etc.), thus giving extensive information about the typical shapes of these trees. We also provide efficient algorithms to generate large trees efficiently in the two models. The proofs are based on a combination of analytic combinatorics, probabilistic methods, and bijective methods (we exhibit bijections between our models and well-known models of the literature such as permutations and Stirling numbers of both kinds).

It turns out that even though our models are labelled, they can be specified simply in the world of ordinary generating functions. However, the resulting generating functions will be formal. Then, by applying Borel transforms the models will be amenable to techniques of analytic combinatorics.

For each of the two models, we provide asymptotic theorems for different characteristics of the tree (e.g. degree of the root, degree distribution, height, etc.), thus giving extensive information about the typical shapes of these trees. We also provide efficient algorithms to generate large trees efficiently in the two models. The proofs are based on a combination of analytic combinatorics, probabilistic methods, and bijective methods (we exhibit bijections between our models and well-known models of the literature such as permutations and Stirling numbers of both kinds).

It turns out that even though our models are labelled, they can be specified simply in the world of ordinary generating functions. However, the resulting generating functions will be formal. Then, by applying Borel transforms the models will be amenable to techniques of analytic combinatorics.

Original language | English |
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Article number | 102284 |

Journal | Advances in Applied Mathematics |

Volume | 133 |

Early online date | 20 Oct 2021 |

DOIs | |

Publication status | Published - 28 Feb 2022 |

## Keywords

- Analytic Combinatorics
- Evolution process
- Increasing trees
- Monotonic trees
- Uniform sampling

## ASJC Scopus subject areas

- Applied Mathematics