Subtracting photons from a two-mode squeezed state is a well-known method to increase entanglement. We analyze different strategies of local photon subtraction from a two-mode squeezed state in terms of entanglement gain and success probability. We develop a general framework that incorporates imperfections and losses in all stages of the process: before, during, and after subtraction. By combining all three effects into a single efficiency parameter, we provide analytical and numerical results for subtraction strategies using photon-number-resolving and threshold detectors. We compare the entanglement gain afforded by symmetric and asymmetric subtraction scenarios across the two modes. For a given amount of loss, we identify an optimized set of parameters, such as initial squeezing and subtraction beam splitter transmissivity, that maximize the entanglement gain rate. We identify regimes for which asymmetric subtraction of different Fock states on the two modes outperforms symmetric strategies. In the lossless limit, subtracting a single photon from one mode always produces the highest entanglement gain rate. In the lossy case, the optimal strategy depends strongly on the losses on each mode individually, such that there is no general optimal strategy. Rather, taking losses on each mode as the only input parameters, we can identify the optimal subtraction strategy and required beam splitter transmissivities and initial squeezing parameter. Finally, we discuss the implications of our results for the distillation of continuous-variable quantum entanglement.
Bartley, T. J., Crowley, P. JD., Datta, A., Nunn, J., Zhang, L., & Walmsley, I. (2013). Strategies for enhancing quantum entanglement by local photon subtraction. Physical Review A, 87(2), 022313. https://doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevA.87.022313