Statistical Evaluation of Tolerance to Indoor Temperature Fluctuations for Different Lengths of Stay for Cardiovascular Inpatients

Badr Alotaibi, Stephen Lo, Ricardo Codinhoto

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter in a published conference proceeding


Elevated external temperatures highly affect cardiovascular patients and lead to increased hospital admissions. However, very little is known about what impact fluctuations in indoor temperature have on this patient group in any setting. Inherent difficulties in gathering data from this group of patients directed led to developing this research to investigate the relationship between hospital length of stay (LoS) and cardiovascular inpatients’ tolerance to indoor temperature fluctuations. Data collection and analysis involved measuring indoor air temperatures and relative humidity for four months in cardiology and cardiac surgery wards within a hospital in Saudi Arabia occupied by 67 patients. A mixed-effects model was used for data analysis. It considered LoS and gender as fixed effects and differences between patients as a random effect. The evidence shows irregular variations of 1.42 °C of indoor temperature for patients that experienced different LoS, and 2.7 °C random deviations due to unknown factors. Indoor temperature was inconsistent across the various LoS categories and gender by around ±1 °C. In this study, the indoor temperature had no statistically relevant variations during varied LoS of cardiovascular patients, suggesting that patients experienced a wide range of indoor temperatures as a result of other interrelated factors. However, LoS explains 21% of the variations in indoor temperature. Also, opportunities for patients to acclimatize were limited due to significant deviations in internal temperature. The variations observed in hospitals are likely to be experienced by chronically diseased dwellers. Therefore, dwelling design guidelines must be revisited to incorporate enhanced principles of thermal comfort.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Dwelling Form (IDWELL 2020)
EditorsEvawani Ellisa
Number of pages10
ISBN (Electronic)978-94-6239-059-1
Publication statusPublished - 10 Oct 2020

Publication series

Name Advances in Social Science, Education and Humanities Research
PublisherAtlantis Press SARL
ISSN (Electronic)2352-5398


  • Hospital, length of stay, mixed-effects model, indoor temperature, cardiovascular inpatients


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