Static and fatigue tensile properties of cross-ply laminates containing vascules for self-healing applications

R. Luterbacher, R. S. Trask, I. P. Bond

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31 Citations (SciVal)


The effect of including hollow channels (vascules) within cross-ply laminates on static tensile properties and fatigue performance is investigated. No change in mechanical properties or damage formation is observed when a single vascule is included in the 0/90 interface, representing 0.5% of the cross sectional area within the specimen. During tensile loading, matrix cracks develop in the 90° layers leading to a reduction of stiffness and strength (defined as the loss of linearity) and a healing agent is injected through the vascules in order to heal them and mitigate the caused degradation. Two different healing agents, a commercial low viscosity epoxy resin (RT151, Resintech) and a toughened epoxy blend (bespoke, in-house formulation) have been used to successfully recover stiffness under static loading conditions. The RT151 system recovered 75% of the initial failure strength, whereas the toughened epoxy blend achieved a recovery of 67%. Under fatigue conditions, post healing, a rapid decay of stiffness was observed as the healed damage re-opened within the first 2500 cycles. This was caused by the high fatigue loading intensity, which was near the static failure strength of the healing resin. However, the potential for ameliorating (via self-healing or autonomous repair) more diffuse transverse matrix damage via a vascular network has been shown.

Original languageEnglish
Article number015003
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 17 Nov 2015


  • cross-ply laminate
  • fibre reinforced polymer
  • matrix damage
  • self-healing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Signal Processing


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