St. Francis of Assisi’s dramatic meeting with the Sultan Malek el-Kamel in Damietta, Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade (1213–1221) has become an important part of the contemporary context for Muslim–Christian relations, Middle East politics and international relations. It is well-known among Catholics and medieval historians, but it was Pope John Paul II who coined the term ‘the spirit of Assisi’ which has given this event its prominence and relevance. However, this has been questioned – it is based on limited and contradictory evidence, and why do we need such historical models of positive Muslim–Christian relations? This article, in response to these objections, argues that critical theory, the Frankfurt School and social constructivism as they are developed in the theory of international relations offer a helpful perspective to examine Francis’ encounter with the Sultan, and this shows more clearly why this early Muslim–Christian encounter is relevant for contemporary international relations.
- cancer-predisposition syndromes
- genetic testing
- inherited cancer genetics
- whole-genome sequencing
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