Surfaces with deformable and shape-changing properties seek to enhance and diversify tangible interactions with computing systems. However, we currently lack fundamental knowledge and user interface design principles that connect the inherent properties of deformable shapes with our human senses and cognitive associations. To address this knowledge gap, we systematically explored deformable shapes’ cross-modal correspondences (CC) with colours and emotions. In our CC study, 52 participants were presented with deformable shape stimuli that varied in stiffness and angularity. They were asked to associate these stimuli with colours and emotions under (i) visuo-tactile and; (ii) tactile-only conditions. For the first time, our findings reveal (1) how stiffness level primarily influences the CC associations and; (2) that stiffness and angularity play a significant role in CC associations over the visibility of the shapes. The results were distilled into design guidelines for future deformable, shape-changing interfaces that engage specific human senses and responses.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationCHI '24 - Proceedings of the CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
EditorsFlorian Floyd Mueller, Penny Kyburz, Julie R Williamson, Corina Sas, Max L. Wilson, Phoebe Toups Dugas, Irina Shklovski
Place of PublicationNew York, U. S. A.
PublisherAssociation for Computing Machinery
ISBN (Electronic)97984007003300
Publication statusPublished - 11 May 2024
EventCHI '24 : CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Honolulu, USA United States
Duration: 11 May 202416 May 2024


ConferenceCHI '24 : CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems
Country/TerritoryUSA United States

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