We introduce and analyse an individual-based evolutionary model, in which a population of genetically diverse organisms compete with each other for limited resources. Through theoretical analysis and stochastic simulations, we show that the model exhibits a pattern-forming instability which is highly amplified by the effects of demographic noise, leading to the spontaneous formation of genotypic clusters. This mechanism supports the thesis that stochasticity has a central role in the formation and coherence of species.
Rogers, T., McKane, A. J., & Rossberg, A. G. (2012). Spontaneous genetic clustering in populations of competing organisms. Physical Biology, 9(6), . https://doi.org/10.1088/1478-3975/9/6/066002