Solid-state interconversions

Unique 100 % reversible transformations between the ground and metastable states in single-crystals of a series of nickel(II) nitro complexes

M.R. Warren, T.L. Easun, S.K. Brayshaw, R.J. Deeth, M.W. George, A.L. Johnson, S. Schiffers, S.J. Teat, A.J. Warren, J.E. Warren, C.C. Wilson, C.H. Woodall, P.R. Raithby

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Abstract

The solid-state, low-temperature linkage isomerism in a series of five square planar group 10 phosphino nitro complexes have been investigated by a combination of photocrystallographic experiments, Raman spectroscopy and computer modelling. The factors influencing the reversible solid-state interconversion between the nitro and nitrito structural isomers have also been investigated, providing insight into the dynamics of this process. The cis-[Ni(dcpe)(NO)] (1) and cis-[Ni(dppe)(NO )] (2) complexes show reversible 100 % interconversion between the η-NO nitro isomer and the η-ONO nitrito form when single-crystals are irradiated with 400 nm light at 100 K. Variable temperature photocrystallographic studies for these complexes established that the metastable nitrito isomer reverted to the ground-state nitro isomer at temperatures above 180 K. By comparison, the related trans complex [Ni(PCy)(NO) ] (3) showed 82 % conversion under the same experimental conditions at 100 K. The level of conversion to the metastable nitrito isomers is further reduced when the nickel centre is replaced by palladium or platinum. Prolonged irradiation of the trans-[Pd(PCy)(NO) ] (4) and trans-[Pt(PCy)(NO )] (5) with 400 nm light gives reversible conversions of 44 and 27 %, respectively, consistent with the slower kinetics associated with the heavier members of group 10. The mechanism of the interconversion has been investigated by theoretical calculations based on the model complex [Ni(dmpe)Cl(NO)]. All or none: The factors that favour high levels of photoconversion between linkage isomers in a series of Group 10, square-planar nitro complexes were investigated. The highest levels of reversible conversions between the linkage isomers are observed for the kinetically labile Ni complexes in which the change in reaction cavity size upon interconversion is smallest (see scheme).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5468-5477
Number of pages10
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume20
Issue number18
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 25 Apr 2014

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Nickel
Isomers
Single crystals
Palladium
Platinum
Temperature
Ground state
Raman spectroscopy
Irradiation
Kinetics
Experiments

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Solid-state interconversions : Unique 100 % reversible transformations between the ground and metastable states in single-crystals of a series of nickel(II) nitro complexes. / Warren, M.R.; Easun, T.L.; Brayshaw, S.K.; Deeth, R.J.; George, M.W.; Johnson, A.L.; Schiffers, S.; Teat, S.J.; Warren, A.J.; Warren, J.E.; Wilson, C.C.; Woodall, C.H.; Raithby, P.R.

In: Chemistry - A European Journal, Vol. 20, No. 18, 25.04.2014, p. 5468-5477.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Warren, M.R. ; Easun, T.L. ; Brayshaw, S.K. ; Deeth, R.J. ; George, M.W. ; Johnson, A.L. ; Schiffers, S. ; Teat, S.J. ; Warren, A.J. ; Warren, J.E. ; Wilson, C.C. ; Woodall, C.H. ; Raithby, P.R. / Solid-state interconversions : Unique 100 % reversible transformations between the ground and metastable states in single-crystals of a series of nickel(II) nitro complexes. In: Chemistry - A European Journal. 2014 ; Vol. 20, No. 18. pp. 5468-5477.
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abstract = "The solid-state, low-temperature linkage isomerism in a series of five square planar group 10 phosphino nitro complexes have been investigated by a combination of photocrystallographic experiments, Raman spectroscopy and computer modelling. The factors influencing the reversible solid-state interconversion between the nitro and nitrito structural isomers have also been investigated, providing insight into the dynamics of this process. The cis-[Ni(dcpe)(NO)] (1) and cis-[Ni(dppe)(NO )] (2) complexes show reversible 100 {\%} interconversion between the η-NO nitro isomer and the η-ONO nitrito form when single-crystals are irradiated with 400 nm light at 100 K. Variable temperature photocrystallographic studies for these complexes established that the metastable nitrito isomer reverted to the ground-state nitro isomer at temperatures above 180 K. By comparison, the related trans complex [Ni(PCy)(NO) ] (3) showed 82 {\%} conversion under the same experimental conditions at 100 K. The level of conversion to the metastable nitrito isomers is further reduced when the nickel centre is replaced by palladium or platinum. Prolonged irradiation of the trans-[Pd(PCy)(NO) ] (4) and trans-[Pt(PCy)(NO )] (5) with 400 nm light gives reversible conversions of 44 and 27 {\%}, respectively, consistent with the slower kinetics associated with the heavier members of group 10. The mechanism of the interconversion has been investigated by theoretical calculations based on the model complex [Ni(dmpe)Cl(NO)]. All or none: The factors that favour high levels of photoconversion between linkage isomers in a series of Group 10, square-planar nitro complexes were investigated. The highest levels of reversible conversions between the linkage isomers are observed for the kinetically labile Ni complexes in which the change in reaction cavity size upon interconversion is smallest (see scheme).",
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T2 - Unique 100 % reversible transformations between the ground and metastable states in single-crystals of a series of nickel(II) nitro complexes

AU - Warren, M.R.

AU - Easun, T.L.

AU - Brayshaw, S.K.

AU - Deeth, R.J.

AU - George, M.W.

AU - Johnson, A.L.

AU - Schiffers, S.

AU - Teat, S.J.

AU - Warren, A.J.

AU - Warren, J.E.

AU - Wilson, C.C.

AU - Woodall, C.H.

AU - Raithby, P.R.

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N2 - The solid-state, low-temperature linkage isomerism in a series of five square planar group 10 phosphino nitro complexes have been investigated by a combination of photocrystallographic experiments, Raman spectroscopy and computer modelling. The factors influencing the reversible solid-state interconversion between the nitro and nitrito structural isomers have also been investigated, providing insight into the dynamics of this process. The cis-[Ni(dcpe)(NO)] (1) and cis-[Ni(dppe)(NO )] (2) complexes show reversible 100 % interconversion between the η-NO nitro isomer and the η-ONO nitrito form when single-crystals are irradiated with 400 nm light at 100 K. Variable temperature photocrystallographic studies for these complexes established that the metastable nitrito isomer reverted to the ground-state nitro isomer at temperatures above 180 K. By comparison, the related trans complex [Ni(PCy)(NO) ] (3) showed 82 % conversion under the same experimental conditions at 100 K. The level of conversion to the metastable nitrito isomers is further reduced when the nickel centre is replaced by palladium or platinum. Prolonged irradiation of the trans-[Pd(PCy)(NO) ] (4) and trans-[Pt(PCy)(NO )] (5) with 400 nm light gives reversible conversions of 44 and 27 %, respectively, consistent with the slower kinetics associated with the heavier members of group 10. The mechanism of the interconversion has been investigated by theoretical calculations based on the model complex [Ni(dmpe)Cl(NO)]. All or none: The factors that favour high levels of photoconversion between linkage isomers in a series of Group 10, square-planar nitro complexes were investigated. The highest levels of reversible conversions between the linkage isomers are observed for the kinetically labile Ni complexes in which the change in reaction cavity size upon interconversion is smallest (see scheme).

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