The power from direct drive linear wave energy converter (DDLWEC) consists of frequent power fluctuations and long term power fluctuations due to oceanic conditions. A 60 kJ SMES is designed to work in conjunction with batteries as a hybrid energy storage system for conditioning the outputs from DDLWECs. The issues of the intrinsic power fluctuations of DDLWECs and the intermittent power generation are both addressed by the hybrid energy storage system.
Nie, Z., Xiao, X., Kang, Q., Aggarwal, R., Zhang, H., & Yuan, W. (2013). SMES-battery energy storage system for conditioning outputs from direct drive linear wave energy converters. IEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity, 23(3), . https://doi.org/10.1109/TASC.2013.2246852