Skipping breakfast before exercise creates a more negative 24-h energy balance: A randomized controlled trial in healthy physically active young men.

Robert Edinburgh, Aaron Hengist, Harry Smith, Rebecca Travers, James Betts, Dylan Thompson, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Gareth Wallis, D Lee Hamilton, E Stevenson, Kevin D Tipton, Javier Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

BACKGROUND: At rest, omission of breakfast lowers daily energy intake, but also lowers energy expenditure, attenuating any effect on energy balance. The effect of breakfast omission on energy balance when exercise is prescribed is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect on 24-h energy balance of omitting compared with consuming breakfast prior to exercise. METHODS: Twelve healthy physically active young men (age 23 ± 3 y, body mass index 23.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed 3 trials in a randomized order (separated by >1 week): a breakfast of oats and milk (431 kcal; 65 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat, 19 g protein) followed by rest (BR); breakfast before exercise (BE; 60 min cycling at 50 % peak power output); and overnight fasting before exercise (FE). The 24-h energy intake was calculated based on the food consumed for breakfast, followed by an ad libitum lunch, snacks, and dinner. Indirect calorimetry with heart-rate accelerometry was used to measure substrate utilization and 24-h energy expenditure. A [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion was used to investigate tissue-specific carbohydrate utilization. RESULTS: The 24-h energy balance was -400 kcal (normalized 95% CI: -230, -571 kcal) for the FE trial; this was significantly lower than both the BR trial (492 kcal; normalized 95% CI: 332, 652 kcal) and the BE trial (7 kcal; normalized 95% CI: -153, 177 kcal; both P < 0.01 compared with FE). Plasma glucose utilization in FE (mainly representing liver glucose utilization) was positively correlated with energy intake compensation at lunch (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), suggesting liver carbohydrate plays a role in postexercise energy-balance regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Neither exercise energy expenditure nor restricted energy intake via breakfast omission were completely compensated for postexercise. In healthy men, pre-exercise breakfast omission creates a more negative daily energy balance and could therefore be a useful strategy to induce a short-term energy deficit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02258399.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1326-1334
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Nutrition
Volume149
Issue number8
Early online date10 Apr 2019
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 31 Aug 2019

Keywords

  • breakfast
  • carbohydrate; exercise
  • energy balance; fasting; metabolism; physical activity; substrate metabolism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cite this

@article{ba2934b566204fadb3675b0c56ebddb5,
title = "Skipping breakfast before exercise creates a more negative 24-h energy balance:: A randomized controlled trial in healthy physically active young men.",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: At rest, omission of breakfast lowers daily energy intake, but also lowers energy expenditure, attenuating any effect on energy balance. The effect of breakfast omission on energy balance when exercise is prescribed is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect on 24-h energy balance of omitting compared with consuming breakfast prior to exercise. METHODS: Twelve healthy physically active young men (age 23 ± 3 y, body mass index 23.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed 3 trials in a randomized order (separated by >1 week): a breakfast of oats and milk (431 kcal; 65 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat, 19 g protein) followed by rest (BR); breakfast before exercise (BE; 60 min cycling at 50 {\%} peak power output); and overnight fasting before exercise (FE). The 24-h energy intake was calculated based on the food consumed for breakfast, followed by an ad libitum lunch, snacks, and dinner. Indirect calorimetry with heart-rate accelerometry was used to measure substrate utilization and 24-h energy expenditure. A [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion was used to investigate tissue-specific carbohydrate utilization. RESULTS: The 24-h energy balance was -400 kcal (normalized 95{\%} CI: -230, -571 kcal) for the FE trial; this was significantly lower than both the BR trial (492 kcal; normalized 95{\%} CI: 332, 652 kcal) and the BE trial (7 kcal; normalized 95{\%} CI: -153, 177 kcal; both P < 0.01 compared with FE). Plasma glucose utilization in FE (mainly representing liver glucose utilization) was positively correlated with energy intake compensation at lunch (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), suggesting liver carbohydrate plays a role in postexercise energy-balance regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Neither exercise energy expenditure nor restricted energy intake via breakfast omission were completely compensated for postexercise. In healthy men, pre-exercise breakfast omission creates a more negative daily energy balance and could therefore be a useful strategy to induce a short-term energy deficit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02258399.",
keywords = "breakfast, carbohydrate; exercise, energy balance; fasting; metabolism; physical activity; substrate metabolism",
author = "Robert Edinburgh and Aaron Hengist and Harry Smith and Rebecca Travers and James Betts and Dylan Thompson and Jean-Philippe Walhin and Gareth Wallis and Hamilton, {D Lee} and E Stevenson and Tipton, {Kevin D} and Javier Gonzalez",
note = "Copyright {\circledC} American Society for Nutrition 2019.",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "31",
doi = "10.1093/jn/nxz018",
language = "English",
volume = "149",
pages = "1326--1334",
journal = "Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "0022-3166",
publisher = "American Society for Nutrition",
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}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Skipping breakfast before exercise creates a more negative 24-h energy balance:

T2 - A randomized controlled trial in healthy physically active young men.

AU - Edinburgh, Robert

AU - Hengist, Aaron

AU - Smith, Harry

AU - Travers, Rebecca

AU - Betts, James

AU - Thompson, Dylan

AU - Walhin, Jean-Philippe

AU - Wallis, Gareth

AU - Hamilton, D Lee

AU - Stevenson, E

AU - Tipton, Kevin D

AU - Gonzalez, Javier

N1 - Copyright © American Society for Nutrition 2019.

PY - 2019/8/31

Y1 - 2019/8/31

N2 - BACKGROUND: At rest, omission of breakfast lowers daily energy intake, but also lowers energy expenditure, attenuating any effect on energy balance. The effect of breakfast omission on energy balance when exercise is prescribed is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect on 24-h energy balance of omitting compared with consuming breakfast prior to exercise. METHODS: Twelve healthy physically active young men (age 23 ± 3 y, body mass index 23.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed 3 trials in a randomized order (separated by >1 week): a breakfast of oats and milk (431 kcal; 65 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat, 19 g protein) followed by rest (BR); breakfast before exercise (BE; 60 min cycling at 50 % peak power output); and overnight fasting before exercise (FE). The 24-h energy intake was calculated based on the food consumed for breakfast, followed by an ad libitum lunch, snacks, and dinner. Indirect calorimetry with heart-rate accelerometry was used to measure substrate utilization and 24-h energy expenditure. A [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion was used to investigate tissue-specific carbohydrate utilization. RESULTS: The 24-h energy balance was -400 kcal (normalized 95% CI: -230, -571 kcal) for the FE trial; this was significantly lower than both the BR trial (492 kcal; normalized 95% CI: 332, 652 kcal) and the BE trial (7 kcal; normalized 95% CI: -153, 177 kcal; both P < 0.01 compared with FE). Plasma glucose utilization in FE (mainly representing liver glucose utilization) was positively correlated with energy intake compensation at lunch (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), suggesting liver carbohydrate plays a role in postexercise energy-balance regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Neither exercise energy expenditure nor restricted energy intake via breakfast omission were completely compensated for postexercise. In healthy men, pre-exercise breakfast omission creates a more negative daily energy balance and could therefore be a useful strategy to induce a short-term energy deficit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02258399.

AB - BACKGROUND: At rest, omission of breakfast lowers daily energy intake, but also lowers energy expenditure, attenuating any effect on energy balance. The effect of breakfast omission on energy balance when exercise is prescribed is unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the effect on 24-h energy balance of omitting compared with consuming breakfast prior to exercise. METHODS: Twelve healthy physically active young men (age 23 ± 3 y, body mass index 23.6 ± 2.0 kg/m2) completed 3 trials in a randomized order (separated by >1 week): a breakfast of oats and milk (431 kcal; 65 g carbohydrate, 11 g fat, 19 g protein) followed by rest (BR); breakfast before exercise (BE; 60 min cycling at 50 % peak power output); and overnight fasting before exercise (FE). The 24-h energy intake was calculated based on the food consumed for breakfast, followed by an ad libitum lunch, snacks, and dinner. Indirect calorimetry with heart-rate accelerometry was used to measure substrate utilization and 24-h energy expenditure. A [6,6-2H2]glucose infusion was used to investigate tissue-specific carbohydrate utilization. RESULTS: The 24-h energy balance was -400 kcal (normalized 95% CI: -230, -571 kcal) for the FE trial; this was significantly lower than both the BR trial (492 kcal; normalized 95% CI: 332, 652 kcal) and the BE trial (7 kcal; normalized 95% CI: -153, 177 kcal; both P < 0.01 compared with FE). Plasma glucose utilization in FE (mainly representing liver glucose utilization) was positively correlated with energy intake compensation at lunch (r = 0.62, P = 0.03), suggesting liver carbohydrate plays a role in postexercise energy-balance regulation. CONCLUSIONS: Neither exercise energy expenditure nor restricted energy intake via breakfast omission were completely compensated for postexercise. In healthy men, pre-exercise breakfast omission creates a more negative daily energy balance and could therefore be a useful strategy to induce a short-term energy deficit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02258399.

KW - breakfast

KW - carbohydrate; exercise

KW - energy balance; fasting; metabolism; physical activity; substrate metabolism

U2 - 10.1093/jn/nxz018

DO - 10.1093/jn/nxz018

M3 - Article

C2 - 31321428

VL - 149

SP - 1326

EP - 1334

JO - Journal of Nutrition

JF - Journal of Nutrition

SN - 0022-3166

IS - 8

ER -