Silver phosphanes partnered with carborane monoanions: Synthesis, structures and use as highly active lewis acid catalysts in a hetero-Diels-Alder reaction

N J Patmore, C Hague, J H Cotgreave, M F Mahon, C G Frost, Andrew S Weller

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Abstract

Four Lewis acidic silver phosphane complexes partnered with [1-closo-CB11H12] and [1-closo-CB11H6Br6](-) have been synthesised and studied by solution NMR and solid-state X-ray diffraction techniques. In the complex [Ag(PPh3)(CB11H12)] (1), the silver is coordinated with the carborane by two stronger 3c-2e B-H-Ag bonds. one weaker B-H-Ag interaction and a very weak Ag...C-arene contact in the solid state. In solution. the carborane remains closely connected with the {Ag(PPh3)}(+) fragment, as evidenced by B-11 chemical shifts. Complex 2 [Ag(PPh3)(2)(CB11H12)](2) adopts a dimeric motif in the solid state, each carborane bridging two Ag centres. In solution at low temperature, two distinct complexes are observed that ate suggested to be monomeric [Ag(PPh3)(2)][CB11H12] and dimeric [Ag(PPh3)(2)(CB11H12)](2). With the more weakly coordinating anion [CB11H6Br6] and one phosphane, complex 3 [Ag(PPh3)(CB11H6Br6)] is isolated. Complex 4. [Ag(PPh3)(2)(CB11H6Br6)], has been characterised spectroscopically. All of the complexes have been assessed as Lex is acids in the hetero-Diels-Alder reaction of N-benzylideneaniline with Danishefsky's diene. Exceptionally low catalyst loadings for this Lewis acid catalysed reaction are required (0.1 mol%) coupled with turnover frequencies of 4000h(-1) (quantitative conversion to product after 15 minutes using 3 at room temperature). Moreover. the reaction does not occur in rigorously dry solvent as addition of a substoichiometric amount of water (50 mol%) is necessary for turnover of the catalyst. It is suggested that a Lewis assisted Bronsted acid is formed between the water and the silver. The effect of changing the counterion to [BF4](-), [OTf](-) and [ClO4] has also been Studied. Significant decreases in reaction rate and final product yield are observed on changing the anion from [CB11H6Br6], thus demonstrating the utility of weakly coordinating carborane anions in organic synthesis.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2088-2098
Number of pages11
JournalChemistry - A European Journal
Volume8
Issue number9
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2002

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