The circumferential profile of cylinder, as a classic shape, has been widely adopted in single-layer latticed shells. Previous research into these structures primarily concentrated on their buckling behavior. In this work, a novel two-way aluminum alloy cable-stiffened single-later latticed shell is proposed to explore a shape optimization procedure of such structure and exam whether the optimized structures have superior performance to the classic cylindrical shape. The optimization procedure adopts a linear algorithm, in which the structural strain energy is selected to be the optimization objective. Buckling analyses are also performed to compare the buckling behavior of this novel latticed shell with classic cylindrical and optimized shapes. The comparisons show that the load-carrying capacities are clearly enhanced by optimizing the shell shapes. The results presented in this article are anticipated to aid engineers in the design of two-way aluminum alloy latticed shells with an optimal shape.