Self-Sampled Gargle Water Direct RT-LAMP as a Screening Method for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Infections

Skaiste Arbaciauskaite, Pouya Babakhani, Natalia Sandetskaya, Dalius Vitkus, Ligita Jancoriene, Dovile Karosiene, Dovile Karciauskaite, Birute Zablockiene, Dirk Kuhlmeier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


We assessed the viability of self-sampled gargle water direct RT-LAMP (LAMP) for detecting SARS-CoV-2 infections by estimating its sensitivity with respect to the gold standard indirect RT-PCR of paired oro-nasopharyngeal swab samples. We also assessed the impact of symptom onset to test time (STT)—i.e., symptom days at sampling, on LAMP. In addition, we appraised the viability of gargle water self-sampling versus oro-nasopharyngeal swab sampling, by comparing paired indirect RT-PCR results. 202 oro-nasopharyngeal swab and paired self-sampled gargle water samples were collected from hospital patients with COVID-19 associated symptoms. LAMP, indirect and direct RT-PCR were performed on all gargle water samples, and indirect RT-PCR was performed on all oro-nasopharyngeal samples. LAMP presented a sensitivity of 80.8% (95% CI: 70.8–90.8%) for sample pairs with sub-25 Ct oro-nasopharyngeal indirect RT-PCR results, and 77.6% (66.2–89.1%) sensitivity for sub-30 Ct samples with STT ≤ 7 days. STT, independently of Ct value, correlated negatively with LAMP performance. 80.7% agreement was observed between gargle water and oro-nasopharyngeal indirect RT-PCR results. In conclusion, LAMP presents an acceptable sensitivity for low Ct and low STT samples. Gargle water may be considered as a viable sampling method, and LAMP as a screening method, especially for symptomatic persons with low STT values.

Original languageEnglish
Article number775
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 22 Mar 2022
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Funding: S.A., N.S. and D.K. (Dirk Kuhlmeier) were supported by the Fraunhofer society project AHEAD. D.V., D.K. (Dovile Karciauskaite), D.K. (Dovile Karosiene), L.J. and B.Z. were funded by Vilnius University Hospital.


  • COVID-19
  • direct RT-LAMP
  • gargle water
  • LAMP
  • loop-mediated isothermal amplification
  • RT-PCR
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • self-sampling
  • viral diseases

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Biochemistry


Dive into the research topics of 'Self-Sampled Gargle Water Direct RT-LAMP as a Screening Method for the Detection of SARS-CoV-2 Infections'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this