Self-powered cardiac pacemaker by piezoelectric polymer nanogenerator implant

Sara Azimi, Allahyar Golabchi, Abdolhossein Nekookar, Shahram Rabbani, Morteza Hassanpour Amiri, Kamal Asadi, Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Citations (SciVal)
7 Downloads (Pure)


Self-powered biomedical implants improve the life of patients and lower the risks associated with battery replacement. Piezoelectric energy harvesters that generate electricity from the cardiac motions are among the potential candidates to be used in self-powered implants, such as cardiac pacemakers. In this context, lead-based ceramic piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) were emerged, which are toxic and susceptible to fatigue crack, causing harm to the patients. Polyvinylidene fluoride-trifluoroethylene (PVDF-TrFE)-based films were also developed as cardiac energy harvesters. Here, we show a battery-free heart pacemaker that is powered by the generated electricity of a biocompatible and flexible piezoelectric polymer-based nanogenerator (PNG) from the cardiac motions of the left ventricle. The PNG is comprised of composite nanofibers of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) and a hybrid nanofiller made of zinc oxide (ZnO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The composite nanofiber is optimized towards achieving a large power output. In vivo implanted optimized PNG can successfully harvest 0.487 μJ from every heartbeat, which is conveniently larger than the pacing threshold energy for the human heart. The successful demonstration of a self-powered pacemaker places the polymer-based PNGs among the viable candidates for self-powered biomedical implants.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105781
JournalNano Energy
Early online date14 Jan 2021
Publication statusPublished - 31 May 2021


  • Biomechanical energy harvesting
  • Piezoelectric nanogenerators
  • PVDF composite fibers
  • Self-powered implantable medical electronics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Self-powered cardiac pacemaker by piezoelectric polymer nanogenerator implant'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this