This study examined self-efficacy, coping, and social support in relation to difficulties interacting with physicians and nurses among women living with breast cancer. One hundred women living in rural, mountainous communities of northeastern California were recruited, with 89 providing complete data for this study. All women completed a battery of questionnaires that included the CARES-Medical Interaction Subscale and measures of self-efficacy, coping, satisfaction with social support, and demographic and medical characteristics. In a multiple regression analysis, difficulties interacting with medical professionals were found to be greater among women who were not married, who used more behavioral disengagement or less self-distraction to cope with breast cancer, and who reported less self-efficacy for affect regulation and for seeking and understanding medical information. Emotional venting and satisfaction with social support for dealing with cancer-related stress were not, however, significantly related to difficulties in interacting with the medical team. This model accounted for an adjusted value of 42% of the variance. Further research is needed to identify possible causal relationships related to these findings and to determine what interventions might be warranted to improve medical interactions for women with breast cancer living in rural areas. Copyright (c) 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.