Self-Awareness and Stereotypes: Accurate Prediction of Implicit Gender Stereotyping

Zahra Rahmani Azad, Alexandra Goedderz, Adam Hahn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Research showing that people can predict the patterns of their implicit evaluations toward social groups has raised questions concerning how widely these findings extend to other domains, such as semantic implicit stereotyping. In a preregistered laboratory study, participants were asked to predict their scores on five implicit gender stereotyping Implicit Associations Tests (IATs). Within-subjects correlations between IAT score predictions and IAT scores showed high levels of accuracy. Although part of the IAT score patterns could be predicted from shared knowledge, own predictions significantly outperformed predictions of random others and normative patterns, suggesting self-awareness beyond reliance on shared knowledge. In line with dual-process models emphasizing that different information is captured by implicit as opposed to explicit measures, predictions explained correlations between implicit and traditional explicit stereotyping measures, and led to acknowledgment of bias. Discussion focuses on understanding conscious awareness of semantic automatic processes and conceptualizations of the cognitions underlying implicit measures.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-14
Number of pages14
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Early online date3 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 3 Sept 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article: This work was supported by a research grant from the German Research Society (Deutsche Forschungsgesellschaft, DFG: Sachbeihilfe HA 8167/2-1: “Self-Insight into Attitudes: Distinguishing Introspective from Social Self-Awareness in Research on Implicit Evaluations“) awarded to Adam Hahn.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2022 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.


  • awareness
  • gender stereotypes
  • implicit association test
  • implicit attitudes
  • implicit cognition
  • stereotypes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


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