Palladium catalysed allylic substitution has emerged as one of the more useful synthetic methods for the construction of C-C and C-X bonds. The reaction offers the advantages of mild reaction conditions, as well as the ability to accomodate a wide range of nucleophiles and their electrophilic partners. The issues of regiocontrol, diastereocontrol and enantiocontrol have been documented by a number of researchers over the last twenty years. The levels of selectivity in many cases are very high, and current research is driving these selectivities higher still. A greater understanding of the nature of the process is occurring as more detailed mechanistic and structural studies are being undertaken. Many uses have been found for palladium catalysed allylic substitution methodology, since the strong stereocontrol allows for the selective formation of numerous products. A few other metals are also able to catalyse allylic substitution, with modified stereochemical behaviour, although these are currently less well documented than for palladium catalysed process.