We have developed a novel class of simple materials for sensing monosaccharides by the functionalization of graphene oxide (GO) with boronate-based fluorescence probes (BA1 and BA2). The composite materials were characterized by atomic force microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and UV-vis/fluorescence spectroscopy. The strong fluorescence of the BA probes is quenched in the presence of GO through fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The BA@GO composite sensors formed provide a useful platform for fluorogenic detection of monosaccharides based on the strong affinity between the boronic acid receptor and monosaccharides. The BA@GO composite sensor displayed a "turn-on" fluorescence response with a good linear relationship toward fructose over a range of other saccharides.