This paper examines the factors that influence why firms draw from universities in their innovative activities. The link between the universities and industrial innovation, and the role of different search strategies in influencing the propensity of firms to use universities is explored. The results suggest that firms who adopt "open" search strategies and invest in R&D are more likely than other firms to draw from universities, indicating that managerial choice matters in shaping the propensity of firms to draw from universities.
Laursen, K., & Salter, A. (2004). Searching high and low: what types of firms use universities as a source of innovation? Research Policy, 33(8), 1201-1215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.respol.2004.07.004