A novel electro-deposition method based on a rocking disc system with /3 amplitude and variable frequency is introduced. Uniform copper films were deposited from a 0.1 M CuSO4/3.0 M NaOH/0.2 M sorbitol bath directly onto 12.1 cm2 Mo/MoSe2 substrates with X-ray diffraction showing a thickness variation of 5% over this area. Investigation of the mass transport conditions suggests (i) uniform diffusion over the sample, (ii) a rate of mass transport proportional to the square root of the rocking rate, and (iii) turbulent conditions, which are able to dislodge gas bubbles during electro-deposition.
Cummings, C. Y., Frith, P. E., Zoppi, G., Forbes, I., Rogers, K. D., Lane, D. W., & Marken, F. (2011). Rocking disc electro-deposition of copper films on Mo/MoSe2 substrates. Thin Solid Films, 519(21), 7458-7463. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2010.12.107