Risk factors for developing acute kidney injury in older people with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based UK cohort study

Anu Jain, Helen I. McDonald, Dorothea Nitsch, Laurie Tomlinson, Sara L. Thomas

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Citations (SciVal)


Background: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is being increasingly recognised in ageing populations. There are a paucity of data about AKI risk factors among older individuals with diabetes and infections, who are at particularly high risk of AKI. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for developing acute kidney injury (AKI) amongst older patients with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in England, and whether the impact of underlying kidney function varied with age. Methods: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study over 7 years (01/04/2004-31/3/2011) using electronic health records from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink linked to Hospital Episode Statistics. The study population comprised individuals with diabetes aged ≥65 years with CAP. Associations between demographic, lifestyle factors, co-morbidities and medications and development of AKI within 28 days of CAP were explored in a logistic regression model. Results: Among 3471 patients with CAP and complete covariate data, 298 patients developed subsequent AKI. In multivariable analyses, factors found to be independently associated with AKI included: male sex (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 1.56 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-2.04), hypertension (aOR1.36 95% CI 1.01-1.85), being prescribed either angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-II-receptor-blockers (aOR: 1.59 95% CI: 1.19-2.13), or insulin (aOR: 2.27 95% CI: 1.27-4.05), presence of proteinuria (aOR 1.27 95% CI 0.98-1.63), and low estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). The odds of AKI were more graded amongst older participants aged ≥80 years compared to those of younger age: for eGFR of ≤29 mL/min/1.73m2 (vs 60 ml/min/1.73m2) aOR: 5.51 95% CI 3.28-9.27 and for eGFR 30-59 mL/min/1.73m2 1.96 95% CI 1.30-2.96, whilst any eGFR < 60 ml/min/1.73m2 was associated with approximately 3-fold increase in the odds of AKI amongst younger individuals (p-value for interaction = 0.007). Conclusions: The identified risk factors should help primary care and hospital providers identify high risk patients in need of urgent management including more intensive monitoring, and prevention of AKI following pneumonia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number142
JournalBMC Nephrology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the National Institute for Health Research [CDF 2010–03-32 to S.L.T.] and Kidney Research UK [ST2/2011 to H.I.M.]. LT is funded by a Wellcome Trust Intermediate Clinical Fellowship (101,143/Z/13/Z). The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the UK National Health Service, the National Institute for Health Research, the Department of Health nor Kidney Research UK.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2017 The Author(s).


  • Acute kidney injury
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Diabetes
  • Older
  • UK

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Risk factors for developing acute kidney injury in older people with diabetes and community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based UK cohort study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this