Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330

An off-axis jet?

C. Guidorzi, C. Clemens, S. Kobayashi, J. Granot, A. Melandri, P. D'Avanzo, N. P.M. Kuin, A. Klotz, J. P.U. Fynbo, S. Covino, J. Greiner, D. Malesani, J. Mao, C. G. Mundell, I. A. Steele, P. Jakobsson, R. Margutti, D. Bersier, S. Campana, G. Chincarini & 14 others V. D'Elia, D. Fugazza, F. Genet, A. Gomboc, T. Krühler, A. K. Yoldaş, A. Moretti, C. J. Mottram, P. T. O'Brien, R. J. Smith, G. Szokoly, G. Tagliaferri, N. R. Tanvir, N. Gehrels

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

41 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Context. X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a peak energy of the time-integrated v Fv spectrum, Ep, typically below 30 keV, whereas classical GRBs have Ep of a few hundreds of keV. Apart from Ep and the systematically lower luminosity, the properties of XRFs, such as their duration or spectral indices, are typical of the classical GRBs. Yet, the nature of XRFs and their differences from GRBs are not understood. In addition, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the shallow decay phase observed in most X-ray afterglows of both XRFs and GRBs.Aims. We examine in detail the case of XRF 080330 discovered by Swift at redshift 1.51. This burst is representative of the XRF class and exhibits an X-ray shallow decay. The rich broadband (from NIR to UV) photometric data set we collected during this phase makes it an ideal candidate for testing the off-axis jet interpretation proposed to explain both the softness of XRFs and the shallow decay phase.Methods. We present prompt X-ray, early and late NIR/visible/UV and X-ray observations of the XRF 080330. We derive a spectral energy distribution from NIR to X-ray bands across the shallow/plateau phase and describe the temporal evolution of the multi-wavelength afterglow within the context of the standard afterglow model.Results. The multiwavelength evolution of the afterglow is achromatic from ∼102 s to ∼8 × 104 s. The energy spectrum from NIR to X-ray is reproduced well by a simple power-law, Fv ∞ v-βox , with βox = 0.79 ± 0.01 and negligible rest-frame dust extinction. The light curve can be modelled by either a piecewise power-law or the combination of a smoothly broken power law with an initial rise up to ∼600 s, a plateau lasting up to ∼2 ks, followed by a gradual steepening to a power-law decay index of ∼2 until 82 ks. At this point, a bump appears to be modelled well with a second component, while the corresponding optical energy spectrum, Fv ∞ v-βo, reddens by Δβo = 0.26 ± 0.06.Conclusions. A single-component jet viewed off-axis can explain the light curve of XRF 080330, the late-time reddening being due to the reverse shock of an energy injection episode and its being an XRF. Other possibilities, such as the optical rise marking the pre-deceleration of the fireball within a wind environment, cannot be excluded definitely, but appear to be contrived. We exclude the possibility of a dust decreasing column density being swept up by the fireball as explaining the rise of the afterglow.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)439-453
Number of pages15
JournalAstronomy and Astrophysics
Volume499
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2009

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flash
x rays
afterglows
gamma ray bursts
power law
fireballs
energy
decay
light curve
plateaus
energy spectra
dust
plateau
softness
deceleration
spectral energy distribution
temporal evolution
marking
optical spectrum
bursts

Keywords

  • Gamma rays: bursts
  • X-rays: individual: XRF 080330

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

Guidorzi, C., Clemens, C., Kobayashi, S., Granot, J., Melandri, A., D'Avanzo, P., ... Gehrels, N. (2009). Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330: An off-axis jet? Astronomy and Astrophysics, 499(2), 439-453. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200911719

Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330 : An off-axis jet? / Guidorzi, C.; Clemens, C.; Kobayashi, S.; Granot, J.; Melandri, A.; D'Avanzo, P.; Kuin, N. P.M.; Klotz, A.; Fynbo, J. P.U.; Covino, S.; Greiner, J.; Malesani, D.; Mao, J.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A.; Jakobsson, P.; Margutti, R.; Bersier, D.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; D'Elia, V.; Fugazza, D.; Genet, F.; Gomboc, A.; Krühler, T.; Yoldaş, A. K.; Moretti, A.; Mottram, C. J.; O'Brien, P. T.; Smith, R. J.; Szokoly, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Gehrels, N.

In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, Vol. 499, No. 2, 01.05.2009, p. 439-453.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Guidorzi, C, Clemens, C, Kobayashi, S, Granot, J, Melandri, A, D'Avanzo, P, Kuin, NPM, Klotz, A, Fynbo, JPU, Covino, S, Greiner, J, Malesani, D, Mao, J, Mundell, CG, Steele, IA, Jakobsson, P, Margutti, R, Bersier, D, Campana, S, Chincarini, G, D'Elia, V, Fugazza, D, Genet, F, Gomboc, A, Krühler, T, Yoldaş, AK, Moretti, A, Mottram, CJ, O'Brien, PT, Smith, RJ, Szokoly, G, Tagliaferri, G, Tanvir, NR & Gehrels, N 2009, 'Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330: An off-axis jet?', Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol. 499, no. 2, pp. 439-453. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200911719
Guidorzi C, Clemens C, Kobayashi S, Granot J, Melandri A, D'Avanzo P et al. Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330: An off-axis jet? Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2009 May 1;499(2):439-453. https://doi.org/10.1051/0004-6361/200911719
Guidorzi, C. ; Clemens, C. ; Kobayashi, S. ; Granot, J. ; Melandri, A. ; D'Avanzo, P. ; Kuin, N. P.M. ; Klotz, A. ; Fynbo, J. P.U. ; Covino, S. ; Greiner, J. ; Malesani, D. ; Mao, J. ; Mundell, C. G. ; Steele, I. A. ; Jakobsson, P. ; Margutti, R. ; Bersier, D. ; Campana, S. ; Chincarini, G. ; D'Elia, V. ; Fugazza, D. ; Genet, F. ; Gomboc, A. ; Krühler, T. ; Yoldaş, A. K. ; Moretti, A. ; Mottram, C. J. ; O'Brien, P. T. ; Smith, R. J. ; Szokoly, G. ; Tagliaferri, G. ; Tanvir, N. R. ; Gehrels, N. / Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330 : An off-axis jet?. In: Astronomy and Astrophysics. 2009 ; Vol. 499, No. 2. pp. 439-453.
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title = "Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330: An off-axis jet?",
abstract = "Context. X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a peak energy of the time-integrated v Fv spectrum, Ep, typically below 30 keV, whereas classical GRBs have Ep of a few hundreds of keV. Apart from Ep and the systematically lower luminosity, the properties of XRFs, such as their duration or spectral indices, are typical of the classical GRBs. Yet, the nature of XRFs and their differences from GRBs are not understood. In addition, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the shallow decay phase observed in most X-ray afterglows of both XRFs and GRBs.Aims. We examine in detail the case of XRF 080330 discovered by Swift at redshift 1.51. This burst is representative of the XRF class and exhibits an X-ray shallow decay. The rich broadband (from NIR to UV) photometric data set we collected during this phase makes it an ideal candidate for testing the off-axis jet interpretation proposed to explain both the softness of XRFs and the shallow decay phase.Methods. We present prompt X-ray, early and late NIR/visible/UV and X-ray observations of the XRF 080330. We derive a spectral energy distribution from NIR to X-ray bands across the shallow/plateau phase and describe the temporal evolution of the multi-wavelength afterglow within the context of the standard afterglow model.Results. The multiwavelength evolution of the afterglow is achromatic from ∼102 s to ∼8 × 104 s. The energy spectrum from NIR to X-ray is reproduced well by a simple power-law, Fv ∞ v-βox , with βox = 0.79 ± 0.01 and negligible rest-frame dust extinction. The light curve can be modelled by either a piecewise power-law or the combination of a smoothly broken power law with an initial rise up to ∼600 s, a plateau lasting up to ∼2 ks, followed by a gradual steepening to a power-law decay index of ∼2 until 82 ks. At this point, a bump appears to be modelled well with a second component, while the corresponding optical energy spectrum, Fv ∞ v-βo, reddens by Δβo = 0.26 ± 0.06.Conclusions. A single-component jet viewed off-axis can explain the light curve of XRF 080330, the late-time reddening being due to the reverse shock of an energy injection episode and its being an XRF. Other possibilities, such as the optical rise marking the pre-deceleration of the fireball within a wind environment, cannot be excluded definitely, but appear to be contrived. We exclude the possibility of a dust decreasing column density being swept up by the fireball as explaining the rise of the afterglow.",
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author = "C. Guidorzi and C. Clemens and S. Kobayashi and J. Granot and A. Melandri and P. D'Avanzo and Kuin, {N. P.M.} and A. Klotz and Fynbo, {J. P.U.} and S. Covino and J. Greiner and D. Malesani and J. Mao and Mundell, {C. G.} and Steele, {I. A.} and P. Jakobsson and R. Margutti and D. Bersier and S. Campana and G. Chincarini and V. D'Elia and D. Fugazza and F. Genet and A. Gomboc and T. Kr{\"u}hler and Yoldaş, {A. K.} and A. Moretti and Mottram, {C. J.} and O'Brien, {P. T.} and Smith, {R. J.} and G. Szokoly and G. Tagliaferri and Tanvir, {N. R.} and N. Gehrels",
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TY - JOUR

T1 - Rise and fall of the X-ray flash 080330

T2 - An off-axis jet?

AU - Guidorzi, C.

AU - Clemens, C.

AU - Kobayashi, S.

AU - Granot, J.

AU - Melandri, A.

AU - D'Avanzo, P.

AU - Kuin, N. P.M.

AU - Klotz, A.

AU - Fynbo, J. P.U.

AU - Covino, S.

AU - Greiner, J.

AU - Malesani, D.

AU - Mao, J.

AU - Mundell, C. G.

AU - Steele, I. A.

AU - Jakobsson, P.

AU - Margutti, R.

AU - Bersier, D.

AU - Campana, S.

AU - Chincarini, G.

AU - D'Elia, V.

AU - Fugazza, D.

AU - Genet, F.

AU - Gomboc, A.

AU - Krühler, T.

AU - Yoldaş, A. K.

AU - Moretti, A.

AU - Mottram, C. J.

AU - O'Brien, P. T.

AU - Smith, R. J.

AU - Szokoly, G.

AU - Tagliaferri, G.

AU - Tanvir, N. R.

AU - Gehrels, N.

PY - 2009/5/1

Y1 - 2009/5/1

N2 - Context. X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a peak energy of the time-integrated v Fv spectrum, Ep, typically below 30 keV, whereas classical GRBs have Ep of a few hundreds of keV. Apart from Ep and the systematically lower luminosity, the properties of XRFs, such as their duration or spectral indices, are typical of the classical GRBs. Yet, the nature of XRFs and their differences from GRBs are not understood. In addition, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the shallow decay phase observed in most X-ray afterglows of both XRFs and GRBs.Aims. We examine in detail the case of XRF 080330 discovered by Swift at redshift 1.51. This burst is representative of the XRF class and exhibits an X-ray shallow decay. The rich broadband (from NIR to UV) photometric data set we collected during this phase makes it an ideal candidate for testing the off-axis jet interpretation proposed to explain both the softness of XRFs and the shallow decay phase.Methods. We present prompt X-ray, early and late NIR/visible/UV and X-ray observations of the XRF 080330. We derive a spectral energy distribution from NIR to X-ray bands across the shallow/plateau phase and describe the temporal evolution of the multi-wavelength afterglow within the context of the standard afterglow model.Results. The multiwavelength evolution of the afterglow is achromatic from ∼102 s to ∼8 × 104 s. The energy spectrum from NIR to X-ray is reproduced well by a simple power-law, Fv ∞ v-βox , with βox = 0.79 ± 0.01 and negligible rest-frame dust extinction. The light curve can be modelled by either a piecewise power-law or the combination of a smoothly broken power law with an initial rise up to ∼600 s, a plateau lasting up to ∼2 ks, followed by a gradual steepening to a power-law decay index of ∼2 until 82 ks. At this point, a bump appears to be modelled well with a second component, while the corresponding optical energy spectrum, Fv ∞ v-βo, reddens by Δβo = 0.26 ± 0.06.Conclusions. A single-component jet viewed off-axis can explain the light curve of XRF 080330, the late-time reddening being due to the reverse shock of an energy injection episode and its being an XRF. Other possibilities, such as the optical rise marking the pre-deceleration of the fireball within a wind environment, cannot be excluded definitely, but appear to be contrived. We exclude the possibility of a dust decreasing column density being swept up by the fireball as explaining the rise of the afterglow.

AB - Context. X-ray flashes (XRFs) are a class of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a peak energy of the time-integrated v Fv spectrum, Ep, typically below 30 keV, whereas classical GRBs have Ep of a few hundreds of keV. Apart from Ep and the systematically lower luminosity, the properties of XRFs, such as their duration or spectral indices, are typical of the classical GRBs. Yet, the nature of XRFs and their differences from GRBs are not understood. In addition, there is no consensus on the interpretation of the shallow decay phase observed in most X-ray afterglows of both XRFs and GRBs.Aims. We examine in detail the case of XRF 080330 discovered by Swift at redshift 1.51. This burst is representative of the XRF class and exhibits an X-ray shallow decay. The rich broadband (from NIR to UV) photometric data set we collected during this phase makes it an ideal candidate for testing the off-axis jet interpretation proposed to explain both the softness of XRFs and the shallow decay phase.Methods. We present prompt X-ray, early and late NIR/visible/UV and X-ray observations of the XRF 080330. We derive a spectral energy distribution from NIR to X-ray bands across the shallow/plateau phase and describe the temporal evolution of the multi-wavelength afterglow within the context of the standard afterglow model.Results. The multiwavelength evolution of the afterglow is achromatic from ∼102 s to ∼8 × 104 s. The energy spectrum from NIR to X-ray is reproduced well by a simple power-law, Fv ∞ v-βox , with βox = 0.79 ± 0.01 and negligible rest-frame dust extinction. The light curve can be modelled by either a piecewise power-law or the combination of a smoothly broken power law with an initial rise up to ∼600 s, a plateau lasting up to ∼2 ks, followed by a gradual steepening to a power-law decay index of ∼2 until 82 ks. At this point, a bump appears to be modelled well with a second component, while the corresponding optical energy spectrum, Fv ∞ v-βo, reddens by Δβo = 0.26 ± 0.06.Conclusions. A single-component jet viewed off-axis can explain the light curve of XRF 080330, the late-time reddening being due to the reverse shock of an energy injection episode and its being an XRF. Other possibilities, such as the optical rise marking the pre-deceleration of the fireball within a wind environment, cannot be excluded definitely, but appear to be contrived. We exclude the possibility of a dust decreasing column density being swept up by the fireball as explaining the rise of the afterglow.

KW - Gamma rays: bursts

KW - X-rays: individual: XRF 080330

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