Review of Environmental Monitoring by Means of Radio Waves in the Polar Regions: From Atmosphere to Geospace

Lucilla Alfonsi, Nicolas Bergeot, Pierre J. Cilliers, Giorgiana De Franceschi, Lisa Baddeley, Emilia Correia, Domenico Di Mauro, Carl Fredrik Enell, Mark Engebretson, Reza Ghoddousi-Fard, Ingemar Häggström, Young bae Ham, Georg Heygster, Geonhwa Jee, Antti Kero, Michael Kosch, Hyuck Jin Kwon, Changsup Lee, Stefan Lotz, Liliana MacotelaMaria Federica Marcucci, Wojciech J. Miloch, Y. Jade Morton, Takahiro Naoi, Monia Negusini, Noora Partamies, Boyan H. Petkov, Eric Pottiaux, Paul Prikryl, P. R. Shreedevi, Rikard Slapak, Luca Spogli, Judy Stephenson, Arantxa M. Triana-Gómez, Oleg A. Troshichev, Roeland Van Malderen, James M. Weygand, Shasha Zou

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

3 Citations (SciVal)


The Antarctic and Arctic regions are Earth's open windows to outer space. They provide unique opportunities for investigating the troposphere–thermosphere–ionosphere–plasmasphere system at high latitudes, which is not as well understood as the mid- and low-latitude regions mainly due to the paucity of experimental observations. In addition, different neutral and ionised atmospheric layers at high latitudes are much more variable compared to lower latitudes, and their variability is due to mechanisms not yet fully understood. Fortunately, in this new millennium the observing infrastructure in Antarctica and the Arctic has been growing, thus providing scientists with new opportunities to advance our knowledge on the polar atmosphere and geospace. This review shows that it is of paramount importance to perform integrated, multi-disciplinary research, making use of long-term multi-instrument observations combined with ad hoc measurement campaigns to improve our capability of investigating atmospheric dynamics in the polar regions from the troposphere up to the plasmasphere, as well as the coupling between atmospheric layers. Starting from the state of the art of understanding the polar atmosphere, our survey outlines the roadmap for enhancing scientific investigation of its physical mechanisms and dynamics through the full exploitation of the available infrastructures for radio-based environmental monitoring.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1609–1698
Number of pages90
JournalSurveys in Geophysics
Issue number6
Early online date23 Sept 2022
Publication statusPublished - 31 Dec 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the GRAPE SCAR Expert Group. EISCAT is an international association supported by research organisations in China (CRIRP), Finland (SA), Japan(NIPR and ISEE), Norway (NFR), Sweden (VR), and the UK (UKRI). The IMF and Solar Wind data are available at the Space Physics Data Facility of the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center ( ). The geomagnetic indices have a 1 minute cadence and are provided by the World Data Center for Geomagnetism of Kyoto (SYM-H and AE, ) and by the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute or Russia and the Technical University of Denmark (PCI, ), This study was supported by PNRA (Italian National Antarctic Research Program). E.Correia thanks the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development—CNPq (Processes No: 406690/2013-8 and 303299/2016-9) and São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (Process No: 2019/05455-2) for individual research support; and National Institute for Space Research (INPE/MCTI), Brazilian Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation (MCTI/CNPq) and Inter-Ministry Commission for Sea Resources (CIRM). J.M. Weygand acknowledges NASA Grant Number 80NSSC18K1220 and NASA contract number 80GSFC17C0018. W.J. Miloch acknowledges the support of Research Council of Norway (Grant No. 267408) and the European Research Council (ERC) under the European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme (ERC Consolidator Grant agreement No 866357, Polar-4DSpace). N. Partamies thanks the Norwegian Research Council (projects 223252 and 287427). The work of Antti Kero is funded by the Tenure Track Project in Radio Science at Sodankylä Geophysical Observatory/University of Oulu and Academy of Finland (project 347796). G Heygster acknowledges the support of the TWV retrieval by EU project INTAROS under Grant Agreement 727890 of Research and Innovation ActionEC Horizon 2020. S. Zou acknowledges NASA Grant Number 80NSSC20K1313. M. J. Engebretson acknowledges support from US National Science Foundation grant AGS-2013648. The space science group from Korea Polar Research Insititute (KOPRI) acknowledge the grants PE21020 and PE22020 from KOPRI and the grand NRF-2020R1C1C1003640 from the Basic Science Research Program through the National ResearchFoundation of Korea (NRF).


  • Antarctica
  • Arctic
  • Atmosphere
  • Ionosphere
  • Multi-instrument monitoring
  • Radio-based monitoring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geophysics
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


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