Reverse iontophoresis of L-lactate: In vitro and in vivo studies

S Nixon, A Sieg, MB Delgado-Charro, RH Guy

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

  • 19 Citations

Abstract

This work investigates the reverse iontophoretic extraction of lactate, a widely used marker of tissue distress in critically ill patients and of sports performance. In vitro experiments were performed to establish the relationship between subdermal lactate levels and lactate iontophoretic extraction fluxes. Subsequently, the iontophoretic extraction of lactate was performed in vivo in healthy volunteers. Lactate was quickly and easily extracted by iontophoresis both in vitro and in vivo. During a short initial phase, iontophoresis extracts the lactate present in the skin reservoir, providing information of relevance, perhaps, for dermatological and cosmetic applications. In a second step, lactate is extracted from the interstitial subdermal fluid allowing local lactate kinetics to be followed in a completely non-invasive way. The simultaneous in vivo extraction of chloride, and its possible role as an internal standard to calibrate lactate reverse iontophoretic fluxes, was also demonstrated. Despite these positive findings, however, considerably more research is necessary to eliminate potential artefacts and to facilitate interpretation of the data.
LanguageEnglish
Pages3457-3465
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume96
Issue number12
DOIs
StatusPublished - Dec 2007

Fingerprint

Iontophoresis
Lactic Acid
In Vitro Techniques
Athletic Performance
Extracellular Fluid
Critical Illness
Cosmetics
Artifacts
Chlorides
Healthy Volunteers
Skin

Keywords

  • Iontophoresis
  • Skin
  • Transdermal
  • Reverse iontophoresis
  • Lactate
  • Pharmacokinetics
  • Therapeutic drug monitoring

Cite this

Reverse iontophoresis of L-lactate : In vitro and in vivo studies. / Nixon, S; Sieg, A; Delgado-Charro, MB; Guy, RH.

In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol. 96, No. 12, 12.2007, p. 3457-3465.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{4e2a28bbcd4145e7b0fca2e2bfe5a66b,
title = "Reverse iontophoresis of L-lactate: In vitro and in vivo studies",
abstract = "This work investigates the reverse iontophoretic extraction of lactate, a widely used marker of tissue distress in critically ill patients and of sports performance. In vitro experiments were performed to establish the relationship between subdermal lactate levels and lactate iontophoretic extraction fluxes. Subsequently, the iontophoretic extraction of lactate was performed in vivo in healthy volunteers. Lactate was quickly and easily extracted by iontophoresis both in vitro and in vivo. During a short initial phase, iontophoresis extracts the lactate present in the skin reservoir, providing information of relevance, perhaps, for dermatological and cosmetic applications. In a second step, lactate is extracted from the interstitial subdermal fluid allowing local lactate kinetics to be followed in a completely non-invasive way. The simultaneous in vivo extraction of chloride, and its possible role as an internal standard to calibrate lactate reverse iontophoretic fluxes, was also demonstrated. Despite these positive findings, however, considerably more research is necessary to eliminate potential artefacts and to facilitate interpretation of the data.",
keywords = "Iontophoresis, Skin, Transdermal, Reverse iontophoresis, Lactate, Pharmacokinetics, Therapeutic drug monitoring",
author = "S Nixon and A Sieg and MB Delgado-Charro and RH Guy",
year = "2007",
month = "12",
doi = "10.1002/jps.20989",
language = "English",
volume = "96",
pages = "3457--3465",
journal = "Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences",
issn = "0022-3549",
publisher = "John Wiley and Sons Inc.",
number = "12",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reverse iontophoresis of L-lactate

T2 - Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

AU - Nixon,S

AU - Sieg,A

AU - Delgado-Charro,MB

AU - Guy,RH

PY - 2007/12

Y1 - 2007/12

N2 - This work investigates the reverse iontophoretic extraction of lactate, a widely used marker of tissue distress in critically ill patients and of sports performance. In vitro experiments were performed to establish the relationship between subdermal lactate levels and lactate iontophoretic extraction fluxes. Subsequently, the iontophoretic extraction of lactate was performed in vivo in healthy volunteers. Lactate was quickly and easily extracted by iontophoresis both in vitro and in vivo. During a short initial phase, iontophoresis extracts the lactate present in the skin reservoir, providing information of relevance, perhaps, for dermatological and cosmetic applications. In a second step, lactate is extracted from the interstitial subdermal fluid allowing local lactate kinetics to be followed in a completely non-invasive way. The simultaneous in vivo extraction of chloride, and its possible role as an internal standard to calibrate lactate reverse iontophoretic fluxes, was also demonstrated. Despite these positive findings, however, considerably more research is necessary to eliminate potential artefacts and to facilitate interpretation of the data.

AB - This work investigates the reverse iontophoretic extraction of lactate, a widely used marker of tissue distress in critically ill patients and of sports performance. In vitro experiments were performed to establish the relationship between subdermal lactate levels and lactate iontophoretic extraction fluxes. Subsequently, the iontophoretic extraction of lactate was performed in vivo in healthy volunteers. Lactate was quickly and easily extracted by iontophoresis both in vitro and in vivo. During a short initial phase, iontophoresis extracts the lactate present in the skin reservoir, providing information of relevance, perhaps, for dermatological and cosmetic applications. In a second step, lactate is extracted from the interstitial subdermal fluid allowing local lactate kinetics to be followed in a completely non-invasive way. The simultaneous in vivo extraction of chloride, and its possible role as an internal standard to calibrate lactate reverse iontophoretic fluxes, was also demonstrated. Despite these positive findings, however, considerably more research is necessary to eliminate potential artefacts and to facilitate interpretation of the data.

KW - Iontophoresis

KW - Skin

KW - Transdermal

KW - Reverse iontophoresis

KW - Lactate

KW - Pharmacokinetics

KW - Therapeutic drug monitoring

UR - http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114264174/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0

U2 - 10.1002/jps.20989

DO - 10.1002/jps.20989

M3 - Article

VL - 96

SP - 3457

EP - 3465

JO - Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

JF - Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences

SN - 0022-3549

IS - 12

ER -