Impaired response inhibition is an important factor in tobacco dependence. We examined the effects of inhibitory control training (ICT) on inhibition, smoking resistance and cigarette use. Smokers (n = 55) abstained from smoking for 12 h prior to testing. On the test day, participants recorded cigarette use and completed pre-training measures of global and cue-specific (smoking-related) response inhibition. Participants were randomized to either an active or a control ICT group. The active group was required to repeatedly inhibit a response towards smoking cues (100%), while the control group was required to inhibit a response towards smoking and neutral cues with equal frequency (50%). Participants performed post-training measures of response inhibition, smoking resistance and cigarette use. Inhibition data did not indicate time (pre-training, post-training) × group (active training, control training) or time × group × cue (smoking, neutral) interactions. There was weak evidence that smokers in the active group were more likely to resist smoking than those in the control group. Cigarette use data did not indicate a time × group interaction. Our data suggest that ICT may enhance the ability to resist smoking, indicating that training may be a promising adjunct to smoking pharmacotherapy.