This paper provides an overview of state-of-the-art repairing and reinforcing techniques on timber columns and shear walls in both research and practice. Both research projects in the laboratory scale and real repair/reinforcement projects are examined. It covers two levels of intervention; repair and reinforcement of timber elements. The former focuses on damaged elements and the latter focuses on enhancing the mechanical properties of the elements. Firstly the need to reinforce and repair timber columns and shear walls is discussed, followed by an extensive review of current techniques for repair and reinforcement. Advantages and disadvantages of different existing techniques are analysed so as to inform future practice and research. Finally, several important issues, such as reversibility and long term behaviour, are also discussed.