In this investigation ozonolysis in the presence of ethanol was used to depolymerise lignin, resulting in a low conversion of oxygenated aromatics over short reaction times, or a range of saturated esters over 24 h. Short chain oxygenates can be used as fuel additives, displacing a percentage of a hydrocarbon fuel while leading to improvement in some of the fuel properties. The utility of the resulting bio-oils was therefore assessed by blending with a range of fuels. Guaiacol, a potential antioxidant, was formed over short reaction times and was found to be completely miscible with low-sulphur petrol (ULSP), diesel, aviation kerosene and rapeseed methyl ester. The mainly aliphatic proportion of the bio-oil produced over 24 h could be blended with the fuels replacing a maximum of 12–17 wt.% of the hydrocarbon fuel.
Chuck, C. J., Parker, H. J., Jenkins, R. W., & Donnelly, J. (2013). Renewable biofuel additives from the ozonolysis of lignin. Bioresource Technology, 143, 549-554. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.06.048