Motivational climate research has focused more empirical attention on coach-initiated motivational climate than on the parent-initiated climate. In this study of 238 competitive swimmers (ages 9–14 years), we compared the strength of relations between athletes’ late-season perceptions of coach and parent-initiated climates and their self-esteem, performance anxiety, and intrinsic–extrinsic motivation. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that parent-initiated motivational climate was a significant predictor of late-season self-esteem, trait anxiety, and autonomous regulation over and above coach-initiated motivational climate. We discuss when and why the parent-initiated climate is likely to be more influential and imply that more empirical attention to parents is warranted.
O’rourke, D. J., Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., & Cumming, S. P. (2014). Relations of Parent- and Coach-Initiated Motivational Climates to Young Athletes’ Self-Esteem, Performance Anxiety, and Autonomous Motivation: Who Is More Influential? Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 26(4), 395-408. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200.2014.907838