Recumbent vs. upright bicycles: 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles

Riccardo Telli, Elena Seminati, Gaspare Pavei, Alberto Enrico Minetti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

LanguageEnglish
Pages491-499
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Sports Sciences
Volume35
Issue number5
Early online date22 Apr 2016
DOIs
StatusPublished - 2017

Fingerprint

Extremities
Muscles
Biomechanical Phenomena
Computer Simulation
Tendons
Hamstring Muscles

Cite this

Recumbent vs. upright bicycles : 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles. / Telli, Riccardo; Seminati, Elena; Pavei, Gaspare; Minetti, Alberto Enrico.

In: Journal of Sports Sciences, Vol. 35, No. 5, 2017, p. 491-499.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{f964d17c465a497d9d6b516aae0f8be7,
title = "Recumbent vs. upright bicycles: 3D trajectory of body centre of mass, limb mechanical work, and operative range of propulsive muscles",
abstract = "Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.",
author = "Riccardo Telli and Elena Seminati and Gaspare Pavei and Minetti, {Alberto Enrico}",
year = "2017",
doi = "10.1080/02640414.2016.1175650",
language = "English",
volume = "35",
pages = "491--499",
journal = "Journal of Sports Sciences",
issn = "0264-0414",
publisher = "Routledge",
number = "5",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Recumbent vs. upright bicycles

T2 - Journal of Sports Sciences

AU - Telli,Riccardo

AU - Seminati,Elena

AU - Pavei,Gaspare

AU - Minetti,Alberto Enrico

PY - 2017

Y1 - 2017

N2 - Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

AB - Recumbent bicycles (RB) are high performance, human-powered vehicles. In comparison to normal/upright bicycles (NB) the RB may allow individuals to reach higher speeds due to aerodynamic advantages. The purpose of this investigation was to compare the non-aerodynamic factors that may potentially influence the performance of the two bicycles. 3D body centre of mass (BCoM) trajectory, its symmetries, and the components of the total mechanical work necessary to sustain cycling were assessed through 3D kinematics and computer simulations. Data collected at 50, 70, 90 110 rpm during stationary cycling were used to drive musculoskeletal modelling simulation and estimate muscle-tendon length. Results demonstrated that BCoM trajectory, confined in a 15-mm side cube, changed its orientation, maintaining a similar pattern across all cadences in both bicycles. RB displayed a reduced additional mechanical external power (16.1 ± 9.7 W on RB vs. 20.3 ± 8.8 W on NB), a greater symmetry on the progression axis, and no differences in the internal mechanical power compared to NB. Simulated muscle activity revealed small significant differences for only selected muscles. On the RB, quadriceps and gluteus demonstrated greater shortening, while biceps femoris, iliacus, and psoas exhibited greater stretch; however, aerodynamics still remains the principal benefit.

UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02640414.2016.1175650

U2 - 10.1080/02640414.2016.1175650

DO - 10.1080/02640414.2016.1175650

M3 - Article

VL - 35

SP - 491

EP - 499

JO - Journal of Sports Sciences

JF - Journal of Sports Sciences

SN - 0264-0414

IS - 5

ER -