Recipes and Designs for Aerogels

Stephen A. Steiner, Ann M. Anderson, Stephanie L. Brock, Moriah C. Buckwalter, Mary K. Carroll, Steve De Pooter, Shannan L. Downey, Alexander Eychmüller, Maximilian Georgi, Justin S. Griffin, Michael D.W. Grogan, Pavel Gurikov, Karl Hiekel, Lawrence W. Hrubesh, Kazuyoshi Kanamori, Barbara Milow, Ryan T. Nelson, A. Venkateswara Rao, Marina Schwan, Karunamuni L. SilvaMarcus A. Worsley, Shanyu Zhao

Research output: Chapter or section in a book/report/conference proceedingChapter or section

1 Citation (SciVal)


This chapter presents a set of representative recipes for synthesizing a variety of aerogels of interest to academia and industry along with designs for equipment of utility for researching aerogels. Useful starting points for preparing aerogels of silica, various metal oxides, polymers, biopolymers, metal chalcogenides, metals, and nanocarbons are provided. Schematics for equipment including a low-cost supercritical CO2 dryer, a setup for performing high-temperature supercritical drying with a hot press instead of an autoclave, and a calibrated hot plate for measuring thermal conductivity are supplied.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Handbooks
EditorsM.A. Aegerter, N. Leventis, M. Koebel, S.A. Steiner III
Place of PublicationCham, Switzerland
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Number of pages86
ISBN (Electronic)9783030273224
ISBN (Print)9783030273217
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2023

Publication series

Name Springer Handbook of Aerogels
VolumePart F1485
ISSN (Print)2522-8692
ISSN (Electronic)2522-8706


Thank you to all of the researchers, engineers, and technicians who have made the recipes and designs in this chapter possible and to the chapter’s many coauthors for supporting its compilation and providing invaluable insights. Additional thanks are extended to the users of, whose feedback and contributions have helped make many of the recipes and designs in this chapter better and who bring the magic of aerogel to so many unexpected new corners of the world. Lastly, S. A. Steiner III would like to express his sincerest gratitude to Tom Tillotson, Dr. Larry Hrubesh, and Dr. John Poco of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and to Prof. Bob West, Prof. Art Ellis, Dr. Pamela Doolittle, Prof. Claude Woods, and Fred Best of the University of Wisconsin-Madison for paying it forward to him, with special gratitude extended to Mr. Ron LeMay and to his mom, grandma, and, in particular, his dad for their love and support in making a homebuilt supercritical dryer (among everything else) possible. It is his hope this chapter pays forward what these people gave him, if only a little bit.


  • Equipment
  • Guide
  • How to
  • Instructions
  • Make
  • Procedure
  • Protocol
  • Recipe
  • Supercritical dryer
  • Synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

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