RC100: Rotation Curves of 100 Massive Star-forming Galaxies at z = 0.6-2.5 Reveal Little Dark Matter on Galactic Scales

A. Nestor Shachar, S. H. Price, N. M. Förster Schreiber, R. Genzel, T. T. Shimizu, L. J. Tacconi, H. Übler, A. Burkert, R. I. Davies, A. Dekel, R. Herrera-Camus, L. L. Lee, D. Liu, D. Lutz, T. Naab, R. Neri, A. Renzini, R. Saglia, K. F. Schuster, A. SternbergE. Wisnioski, S. Wuyts

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Abstract

We analyze Hα or CO rotation curves extending out to several galaxy effective radii for 100 massive, large, star-forming disk galaxies (SFGs) across the peak of cosmic galaxy star formation (z ∼ 0.6-2.5), more than doubling the previous sample presented by Genzel et al. and Price et al. The observations were taken with SINFONI and KMOS integral-field spectrographs at the ESO-Very Large Telescope, LUCI-LBT, NOEMA-IRAM, and Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array. We fit the major-axis kinematics with beam-convolved, forward models of turbulent rotating disks with bulges embedded in dark matter (DM) halos, including the effects of pressure support. The fraction of dark to total matter within the disk effective radius (R e ∼ 5 kpc), f DM(R e) = V 2DM(R e)/V 2circ(R e) decreases with redshift: at z ∼ 1 (z ∼ 2) the median DM fraction is 0.38 ± 0.23 (0.27 ± 0.18), and a third (half) of all galaxies are maximal disks with f DM(R e) < 0.28. DM fractions correlate inversely with the baryonic surface density, and the low DM fractions can be explained with a flattened, or cored, inner DM density distribution. At z ∼ 2, there is ≈40% less DM mass on average within R e compared to expected values based on cosmological stellar-mass-halo-mass relations. The DM deficit is more evident at high star formation rate surface densities (≳2.5 M yr−1 kpc2) and galaxies with massive bulges (≥1010 M ). A combination of stellar or active galactic nucleus feedback, and/or heating due to dynamical friction, may drive the DM from cuspy into cored mass distributions, pointing to an efficient buildup of massive bulges and central black holes at z ∼ 2 SFGs.

Original languageEnglish
Article number78
JournalAstrophysical Journal
Volume944
Issue number1
Early online date14 Feb 2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 28 Feb 2023

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank the referee for the careful review and the very helpful comments. We thank our colleagues at MPE, ESO-Garching, ESO-Paranal, LBT, and IRAM, and members of the 3D-HST, SINFONI/SINS, zC-SINF, and KMOS/KMOS teams, who have contributed to, helped, or otherwise supported these observations and their analysis. This paper is based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO Programmes 074.A-9011, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0600, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, 081.A-0672, 082.A-0396, 088.A-0202, 088.A-0209, 090.A-0516, 091.A-0126, 092.A-0082, 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 093.A-0110, 093.A-0233, 094.A-0217, 094.A-0568, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, 097.B-0065, 097.A-0353, 098.A-0045, 099.A-0013, 099.B-0275, 100.A-0039, 100.A-0361, 101.A-0022, 102.B-0062, 102.B-0087, and 183.A-0781. Also based on observations carried out with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00952.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.00406.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.1.00640.S, and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.1.01362.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This paper also uses observations obtained at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia. We thank the German Science Foundation (DFG) for support via German-Israel Project (DIP) grant STE/1869-2 GE 625/17-1. A.S. is supported by research grants from the Center for Computational Astrophysics (CCA) of the Flatiron Institute, and the Mathematics and Science Division of the Simons Foundation, USA. A.D. has been partly supported by grants ISF 861/20 and DIP 030-9111. EW acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council Center of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. H.Ü. gratefully acknowledges support from the Isaac Newton Trust and the Kavli Foundation through a Newton-Kavli Junior Fellowship. T.N. and A.B. acknowledge support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy—EXC-2094-390783311 from the DFG Cluster of Excellence “ORIGINS”. R.H.-C. thanks the Max Planck Society for support under the Partner Group project “The Baryon Cycle in Galaxies” between the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and the Universidad de Concepción. R.H-C also acknowledge financial support from Millenium Nucleus NCN19058 (TITANs) and support by the ANID BASAL projects ACE210002 and FB210003. 3D

Funding Information:
We thank the referee for the careful review and the very helpful comments. We thank our colleagues at MPE, ESO-Garching, ESO-Paranal, LBT, and IRAM, and members of the 3D-HST, SINFONI/SINS, zC-SINF, and KMOS/KMOS3D teams, who have contributed to, helped, or otherwise supported these observations and their analysis. This paper is based on observations collected at the European Organization for Astronomical Research in the Southern Hemisphere under ESO Programmes 074.A-9011, 075.A-0466, 076.A-0527, 078.A-0600, 079.A-0341, 080.A-0330, 080.A-0339, 080.A-0635, 081.A-0672, 082.A-0396, 088.A-0202, 088.A-0209, 090.A-0516, 091.A-0126, 092.A-0082, 092.A-0091, 093.A-0079, 093.A-0110, 093.A-0233, 094.A-0217, 094.A-0568, 095.A-0047, 096.A-0025, 097.A-0028, 097.B-0065, 097.A-0353, 098.A-0045, 099.A-0013, 099.B-0275, 100.A-0039, 100.A-0361, 101.A-0022, 102.B-0062, 102.B-0087, and 183.A-0781. Also based on observations carried out with the IRAM NOEMA Interferometer. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain). This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2013.1.00952.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2016.1.00406.S, ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.1.00640.S, and ADS/JAO.ALMA#2019.1.01362.S. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan), together with NRC (Canada), MOST and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This paper also uses observations obtained at the Large Binocular Telescope (LBT). The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; The Ohio State University, and the Research Corporation, on behalf of the University of Notre Dame, the University of Minnesota, and the University of Virginia. We thank the German Science Foundation (DFG) for support via German-Israel Project (DIP) grant STE/1869-2 GE 625/17-1. A.S. is supported by research grants from the Center for Computational Astrophysics (CCA) of the Flatiron Institute, and the Mathematics and Science Division of the Simons Foundation, USA. A.D. has been partly supported by grants ISF 861/20 and DIP 030-9111. EW acknowledges support from the Australian Research Council Center of Excellence for All Sky Astrophysics in 3 Dimensions (ASTRO 3D), through project number CE170100013. H.Ü. gratefully acknowledges support from the Isaac Newton Trust and the Kavli Foundation through a Newton-Kavli Junior Fellowship. T.N. and A.B. acknowledge support from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG, German Research Foundation) under Germany’s Excellence Strategy—EXC-2094-390783311 from the DFG Cluster of Excellence “ORIGINS”. R.H.-C. thanks the Max Planck Society for support under the Partner Group project “The Baryon Cycle in Galaxies” between the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and the Universidad de Concepción. R.H-C also acknowledge financial support from Millenium Nucleus NCN19058 (TITANs) and support by the ANID BASAL projects ACE210002 and FB210003.

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

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