Ratiometric Electrochemistry:Improving the Robustness, Reproducibility and Reliability of Biosensors

Christopher Frost, Sam Spring, Sean Goggins

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

20 Citations (SciVal)


Electrochemical biosensors are an increasingly attractive option for the development of a novel analyte detection method, especially when integration within a point-of-use device is the overall objective. In this context, accuracy and sensitivity are not compromised when working with opaque samples as the electrical readout signal can be directly read by a device without the need for any signal transduction. However, electrochemical detection can be susceptible to substantial signal drift and increased signal error. This is most apparent when analysing complex mixtures and when using small, single-use, screen-printed electrodes. Over recent years, analytical scien-tists have taken inspiration from self-referencing ratiometric fluorescence methods to counteract these problems and have begun to develop ratiometric electrochemical protocols to improve sen-sor accuracy and reliability. This review will provide coverage of key developments in rati-ometric electrochemical (bio)sensors, highlighting innovative assay design, and the experiments performed that challenge assay robustness and reliability.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2130
Issue number8
Early online date7 Apr 2021
Publication statusPublished - 7 Apr 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
We thank University of Bath for supporting this work.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.


  • Chemodosimeters
  • Dual-channel systems
  • Electrochemical biosensors
  • Ratiometric detection
  • Secondary redox-active labelling

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Chemistry (miscellaneous)
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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