Ratiometric electrochemical detection of Pd•••π interactions: application towards electrochemical molecular logic gates

Sean Goggins, Oliver P. Stark, Christophe Naz, Barrie J. Marsh, Christopher G. Frost

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The widespread and large scale use of platinum group metals, especially palladium, in a wide variety of industrial applications has seen their levels in wastewater streams, roadside dust and even pharmaceuticals significantly rise over recent years. Due to the possible environmental damage and potential health risk this may cause, there is now substantial demand for inexpensive, efficient and robust methods for the detection of palladium. Based upon self-immolative linker technologies, we have designed and synthesised a number of allyl ether-functionalised electrochemical probes to determine the optimum probe structure required to deliver a ratiometric electrochemical detection method capable of achieving a limit of detection of <1 mg/mL within 20 min through the use of disposable screen-printed carbon electrodes. Combined with an enzymatic assay, this method was then used to achieve a proof-of-principle ratiometric electrochemical molecular logic gate.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)749-757
Number of pages9
JournalSupramolecular Chemistry
Issue number10
Early online date7 Feb 2017
Publication statusPublished - 2017



  • electrochemical
  • logic gates
  • palladium
  • Ratiometric
  • sensing

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