Raman Techniques: Fundamentals and Frontiers

Robin R. Jones, David C. Hooper, Liwu Zhang, Daniel Wolverson, Ventsislav K. Valev

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

394 Citations (SciVal)


Driven by applications in chemical sensing, biological imaging and material characterisation, Raman spectroscopies are attracting growing interest from a variety of scientific disciplines. The Raman effect originates from the inelastic scattering of light, and it can directly probe vibration/rotational-vibration states in molecules and materials. Despite numerous advantages over infrared spectroscopy, spontaneous Raman scattering is very weak, and consequently, a variety of enhanced Raman spectroscopic techniques have emerged. These techniques include stimulated Raman scattering and coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering, as well as surface- and tip-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopies. The present review provides the reader with an understanding of the fundamental physics that govern the Raman effect and its advantages, limitations and applications. The review also highlights the key experimental considerations for implementing the main experimental Raman spectroscopic techniques. The relevant data analysis methods and some of the most recent advances related to the Raman effect are finally presented. This review constitutes a practical introduction to the science of Raman spectroscopy; it also highlights recent and promising directions of future research developments.

Original languageEnglish
Article number231
Pages (from-to)1-34
Number of pages34
JournalNanoscale Research Letters
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 12 Jul 2019


  • Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering
  • Hyperspectral microscopy
  • Raman spectroscopy
  • Spontaneous Raman scattering
  • Stimulated Raman scattering
  • Surface-enhanced Raman scattering
  • Tip-enhanced Raman scattering

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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