Protein transduction domains: Are they delivering?

Isabelle Green, Richard Christison, Catherine J. Voyce, Ken R. Bundell, Mark A. Lindsay

Research output: Contribution to journalShort surveypeer-review


Early studies with protein transduction domains (PTDs), such as those derived from Tat and Drosophila Antennapedia, showed rapid, receptor- and endosomal-independent uptake of conjugated biological tools into all cell types. However, recent mechanistic studies suggest that these observations were artefacts of the positively charged nature of PTDs and that uptake is instead via electrostatic binding to the plasma membrane and subsequent endocytosis. Given these observations, we assess the future utility of PTDs for in vitro and in vivo cellular delivery.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)213-215
Number of pages3
JournalTrends in Pharmacological Sciences
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Toxicology
  • Pharmacology

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