Protein and calcium mediated GLP-1 secretion: A narrative review: Protein, calcium and GLP-1

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Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is an incretin hormone produced in the intestine which is secreted in response to nutrient exposure. GLP-1 potentiates glucose-dependent insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta cells and promotes satiety. These important actions on glucose metabolism and appetite have led to widespread interest in GLP-1 receptor agonism. Typically, this involves pharmacological GLP-1 mimetics or targeted inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4), the enzyme responsible for GLP-1 degradation. However, nutritional strategies provide a widely available, cost-effective alternative to pharmacological strategies for enhancing hormone release. Recent advances in nutritional research have implicated the combined ingestion of protein and calcium with enhanced endogenous GLP-1 release, which is likely due to activation of receptors with high affinity and/or sensitivity for amino acids and calcium. Specifically targeting these receptors may enhance gut hormone secretion, thus providing a new therapeutic option. This narrative review provides an overview of the latest research on protein and calcium mediated GLP-1 release with an emphasis on human data, and a perspective on potential mechanisms that link potent GLP-1 release to the co-ingestion of protein and calcium. In light of these recent findings, potential future research directions are also presented.
Original languageEnglish
JournalAdvances in nutrition (Bethesda, Md.)
Publication statusPublished - 21 May 2021

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