Projects per year
This paper reports the use of an immobilised ruthenium complex in a continuous flow process for the N-alkylation of morpholine with benzyl alcohol. The ruthenium-based catalyst was supported on a phosphine bound polymer. Screening experiments were first performed in a batch reactor, with a 16 vol% mixture of morpholine and benzyl alcohol (stoichiometric molar ratio of 1:1) in toluene as the solvent. Operating at 110 degrees C for 24 h, it was shown that high conversions (>99%) into the desired tertiary amine could be achieved. This reaction was then shown to be viable in a continuous flow reactor, where the catalytic polymer beads were retained in the bed. Operating at 150 degrees C and using p-xylene as a solvent, the conversion into the desired tertiary amine was shown to be as high as 98%. This approach is clearly very promising, as it provides a greener and more atom efficient route for the production of secondary and tertiary amines in the pharmaceutical industry.
- continuous pharmaceutical processing
- production of amines
- N-Alkylation of amines using alcohols
- borrowing hydrogen
Williams, J. & Kolaczkowski, S.
14/01/08 → 13/01/11
Project: Research council
Lamb, G. W., Al Badran, F. A., Williams, J. M. J., & Kolaczkowski, S. T. (2010). Production of pharmaceuticals: amines from alcohols in a continuous flow fixed bed catalytic reactor. Chemical Engineering Research & Design, 88(12), 1533-1540. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cherd.2010.04.005