Producing polished prokaryotic pangenomes with the Panaroo pipeline

Gerry Tonkin-Hill, Neil MacAlasdair, Christopher Ruis, Aaron Weimann, Gal Horesh, John A Lees, Rebecca A Gladstone, Stephanie Lo, Christopher Beaudoin, R Andres Floto, Simon D W Frost, Jukka Corander, Stephen D Bentley, Julian Parkhill

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

331 Citations (SciVal)


Population-level comparisons of prokaryotic genomes must take into account the substantial differences in gene content resulting from horizontal gene transfer, gene duplication and gene loss. However, the automated annotation of prokaryotic genomes is imperfect, and errors due to fragmented assemblies, contamination, diverse gene families and mis-assemblies accumulate over the population, leading to profound consequences when analysing the set of all genes found in a species. Here, we introduce Panaroo, a graph-based pangenome clustering tool that is able to account for many of the sources of error introduced during the annotation of prokaryotic genome assemblies. Panaroo is available at .

Original languageEnglish
Article number180
Number of pages21
JournalGenome Biology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jul 2020


  • Algorithms
  • Biological Evolution
  • Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics
  • Genome, Bacterial
  • Genomics/methods
  • Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genetics
  • Software


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