Electric vehicles (EVs) are becoming more popular in modern society. These vehicles can be charged at home or in public areas with standard outlets. However, the extra power demand affects the distribution network (DN) in terms of power losses. If these vehicles are connected into the DN during peak times, it increases the power losses. One effective methods to solve this issue would be the introduction of energy storage systems (ESSs). Therefore, both active and reactive power dispatch combined with different charging periods, off peak and peak, for the ESS is proposed in this paper. The research provides both uncoordinated optimal active-reactive power flow (UA-RPF) of the ESS and the coordinated optimal active-reactive power flow (CA-RPF) of the ESS, which improves the performance of the DN. Results for the IEEE-33 distribution system are presented. It is demonstrated that 1.43MW total power losses (TPL) and 1.64MW of imports from the transmission network (TN) can be reduced by using the proposed approach.
Wang, C., Dunn, R., & Lian, B. (2014). Power loss reduction for electric vehicle penetration with embedded energy storage in distribution networks. In ENERGYCON 2014 - IEEE International Energy Conference (pp. 1417-1424). IEEE. https://doi.org/10.1109/ENERGYCON.2014.6850608