Post 9/11 higher-education reforms and the instruction of International Relations in Pakistan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (SciVal)
62 Downloads (Pure)


Although Pakistan's higher education sector has seen seismic reforms since 9/11, little is known about the impact of those reforms on day-today instruction at Pakistani universities. Based on fieldwork at three institutions, this article examines the impact of these reforms on the teaching of international relations. This study makes several points. First, faculty who receive advanced degrees abroad and return to Pakistan have introduced a culture of innovation at Pakistani universities, but the changes have been too abrupt. Second, students express clear preference for their instruction to be in English. Third, students have limited appetites for instruction in their first language. Fourth, the staff and students at one of the military institutions examined displayed a moderate, often liberal view. Finally, universities still lag behind in catering to the learning needs of a diverse student body.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)267–287
Number of pages21
JournalInternational Studies Perspectives
Issue number3
Early online date26 Feb 2018
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2018


  • Intercultural learning
  • Language of instruction
  • Learning methods
  • Western-centric curriculum

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Political Science and International Relations


Dive into the research topics of 'Post 9/11 higher-education reforms and the instruction of International Relations in Pakistan'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this