Portable remote Raman system for monitoring hydrocarbon, gas hydrates and explosives in the environment

Shiv K. Sharma, Anupam K. Misra, Bhavna Sharma

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113 Citations (SciVal)


We report our initial efforts to use a small portable Raman system for stand-off detection and identification of various types of organic chemicals including benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and xylenes (BTEX). Both fiber-optic (FO) coupled and a directly coupled f/2.2 spectrograph with the telescope have been developed and tested. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG pulsed laser (20 Hz, 532 nm, 35 mJ/pulse) is used as the excitation source. The operational range of the FO coupled Raman system was tested to 66 m, and the directly coupled system was tested to a distance of 120 m. We have also measured remote Raman spectra of compressed methane gas and methane gas hydrate. The usefulness of the remote Raman system for identifying unknown compounds is demonstrated by measuring stand-off spectra of two plastic explosives, e.g. tri-amino tri-nitrobenzene (TATB) and beta-HMX at 10 m stand-off distance. The remote Raman system will be useful for terrestrial applications such as monitoring environmental pollution, in identifying unknown materials in public places in 10 s or less, and for detecting hydrocarbon plumes and gas hydrates on planetary surfaces such as Mars.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2404-2412
Number of pages9
JournalSpectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2005
EventGeoraman 2004: Sixth International Conference on Raman Spectroscopy Applied to the Earth and Planetary Sciences -
Duration: 6 Jun 200411 Jun 2004


  • Environmental pollution
  • Explosives
  • Gas hydrate
  • Hydrocarbons
  • Mars
  • Raman

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Instrumentation
  • Spectroscopy


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