Porous graphene/poly(vinylidene fluoride) nanofibers for pressure sensing

Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani, Sara Azimi, Masoud Mousavi, Saleem Anwar, Morteza Hassanpour Amiri, Kamyar Shirvanimoghaddam, Minoo Naebe, Jasper Michels, Kamal Asadi

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Piezoelectric polymers have emerged as promising materials for application in pressure sensing devices in particular for wearable applications, where inorganic piezoelectric materials can face limitations due to their brittleness. One of the bottlenecks for the adaptation of piezoelectric polymers is their relatively weak piezoelectric voltage coefficient. Hence there have been numerous efforts to improve the performance of the comprising devices by making composites of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), or through making porous PVDF films, or by nanostructuring. Here, we demonstrate the fabrication of porous nanofibers with graphene/PVDF composites and investigate the suitability of the fiber for motion sensing. The nanofibers are fabricated by electrospinning from the solution phase. Guided by an experimentally validated phase diagram for PVDF/solvent/non-solvent ternary system, porous graphene/PVDF nanofibers with different porosities and pore morphologies have been produced through solidifying the fibers in the binodal or spinodal regions of the phase diagram. It is found that only by solidifying the composite fibers in the spinodal region, graphene loading of 0.1 wt% promotes the formation of the electroactive phase substantially, and the resulting fibers exhibit enhanced piezoelectric output. It is further shown that the comprising sensors are biocompatible and show high sensitivity to body motion.

Original languageEnglish
Article number51907
JournalJournal of Applied Polymer Science
Issue number14
Early online date20 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - 10 Apr 2022

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Mohammad Mahdi Abolhasani would like to thank the Australian Endeavor Fellowship Program, Deakin University, and the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for their financial support. Kamal Asadi, Sara Azimi, and Morteza Hassanpour Amiri acknowledge the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation for the funding provided in the framework of the Sofja Kovalevskaja Award, endowed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany, and the Max‐Planck Institute for Polymer Research for technical support. Minoo Naebe acknowledges the support of the Australian Research Council World Class Future Fiber Industry Transformation Research Hub (IH140100018) and the Australian Research Council Training Centre for Light Weight Automotive Structures (ATLAS). This work was performed in part at the Deakin node of the Australian National Fabrication Facility, a company established under the National Collaborative Research Infrastructure Strategy to provide nano‐ and micro‐fabrication facilities for Australia's researchers. Open Access funding enabled and organized by Projekt DEAL.


  • applications
  • differential scanning calorimetry
  • electrospinning
  • fibers

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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