Polish return and double return migration

Anne White

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Citations (SciVal)


Regional surveys indicate that about half the Poles who migrated since 2004 are living back in Poland. However, surveys of returnees also suggest that most are not committed to settling. This article explores why, looking at re-integration problems common worldwide, but also at the specifics of post-communist Poland, such as regional inequalities, job insecurity and low social trust. Although many returnees will continue to migrate temporarily, for others (notably those aged around 30) the experience of failed return to Poland inclines them to settle abroad. Such double return migrants engage in new, less transnational livelihood strategies, integrating more abroad and burning bridges back to Poland.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)25-49
Number of pages26
JournalEurope-Asia Studies
Issue number1
Early online date29 Nov 2013
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2014


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