Plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 responses to ingestion of protein with increasing doses of milk minerals rich in calcium: Protein, calcium and GLP-1 release

Jon Watkins, Harry Smith, Lisa Hoj Brunsgaard, Ulla Ramer Mikkelsen, Francoise Koumanov, James Betts, Javier Gonzalez

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


A high dose of whey protein hydrolysate fed with milk minerals rich in calcium (Capolac®) results in enhanced glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) concentrations in lean individuals, however the effect of different calcium doses ingested alongside protein is unknown. The present study assessed the dose response of calcium fed alongside 25 g whey protein hydrolysate on GLP-1 concentrations in individuals with overweight/obesity. Eighteen adults (mean ± SD: 8M/10F, 34 ± 18 years, 28.2 ± 2.9 kg∙m-2) completed 4 trials in a randomised, double-blind, crossover design. Participants consumed test solutions consisting of 25 g whey protein hydrolysate (CON), supplemented with 3179 mg (LOW), 6363 mg (MED), or 9547 mg (HIGH) Capolac® on different occasions, separated by at least 48 hours. The calcium content of test solutions equated to 65, 892, 1719 and 2547 mg, respectively. Arterialised-venous blood was sampled over 180 min to determine plasma concentrations of GLP-1TOTAL, GLP-17-36amide, insulin, glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), and serum concentrations of calcium and albumin. Ad libitum energy intake was measured at 180 min. Time-averaged incremental area under the curve (iAUC) for GLP-1TOTAL (pmol·L-1·min-1) did not differ between CON (23 ± 4), LOW (25 ± 6), MED (24 ± 5), and HIGH (24 ± 6). Energy intake (kcal) did not differ between CON (940 ± 387), LOW (884 ± 345), MED (920 ± 334), and HIGH (973 ± 390). Co-ingestion of whey protein hydrolysate with Capolac® does not potentiate GLP-1 release in comparison to whey protein hydrolysate alone. The study was registered at clinical trials (NCT03819972).
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-25
JournalBritish Journal of Nutrition
Early online date9 Aug 2021
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 9 Aug 2021


  • calcium
  • protein
  • GLP-1
  • appetite
  • Energy Intake

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