PIMMS échelle: the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams

Christopher H. Betters, Sergio G. Leon-Saval, Joss Bland-Hawthorn, Samuel N. Richards, Tim A. Birks, Itandehui Gris-Sánchez

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

  • 4 Citations

Abstract

PIMMS échelle is an extension of previous PIMMS (photonic integrated multimode spectrograph) designs, enhanced by using an échelle diffraction grating as the primary dispersing element for increased spectral band- width. The spectrograph operates at visible wavelengths (550 to 780nm), and is capable of capturing ∼100 nm of R > 60, 000 (λ/(triangle)λ) spectra in a single exposure. PIMMS échelle uses a photonic lantern to convert an arbitrary (e.g. incoherent) input beam into N diffraction-limited outputs (i.e. N single-mode fibres). This allows a truly diffraction limited spectral resolution, while also decoupling the spectrograph design from the input source. Here both the photonic lantern and the spectrograph slit are formed using a single length of multi-core fibre. A 1x19 (1 multi-mode fiber to 19 single-mode fibres) photonic lantern is formed by tapering one end of the multi-core fibre, while the other end is used to form a TIGER mode slit (i.e. for a hexagonal grid with sufficient spacing and the correct orientations, the cores of the multi-core fibre can be dispersed such that they do not overlap without additional reformatting). The result is an exceptionally compact, shoebox sized, spectrograph that is constructed primarily from commercial off the shelf components. Here we present a brief overview of the échelle spectrograph design, followed by results from on-sky testing of the breadboard mounted version of the spectrograph at the 'UK Schmidt Telescope'.

LanguageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of SPIE
Subtitle of host publicationGround-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V
EditorsS. K. Ramsay, I. S. MacLean, H. Takami
PublisherSPIE
Volume9147
ISBN (Print)9780819496157
DOIs
StatusPublished - Jul 2014
EventGround-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, 2014 - Montreal, Canada
Duration: 22 Jun 2014 → …

Conference

ConferenceGround-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, 2014
CountryCanada
CityMontreal
Period22/06/14 → …

Fingerprint

spectrographs
photonics
diffraction
fibers
slits
Schmidt telescopes
dispersing
spectral bands
tapering
gratings (spectra)
shelves
triangles
spectral resolution
decoupling
sky
grids
spacing
bandwidth
output
wavelengths

Keywords

  • astrophotonics
  • diffraction limited spectrograph
  • high resolution spectrograph,single mode spectrograph
  • photonic lantern

Cite this

Betters, C. H., Leon-Saval, S. G., Bland-Hawthorn, J., Richards, S. N., Birks, T. A., & Gris-Sánchez, I. (2014). PIMMS échelle: the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams. In S. K. Ramsay, I. S. MacLean, & H. Takami (Eds.), Proceedings of SPIE : Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V (Vol. 9147). [91471I] SPIE. DOI: 10.1117/12.2055638

PIMMS échelle : the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams. / Betters, Christopher H.; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Richards, Samuel N.; Birks, Tim A.; Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui.

Proceedings of SPIE : Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V. ed. / S. K. Ramsay; I. S. MacLean; H. Takami. Vol. 9147 SPIE, 2014. 91471I.

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Betters, CH, Leon-Saval, SG, Bland-Hawthorn, J, Richards, SN, Birks, TA & Gris-Sánchez, I 2014, PIMMS échelle: the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams. in SK Ramsay, IS MacLean & H Takami (eds), Proceedings of SPIE : Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V. vol. 9147, 91471I, SPIE, Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V, 2014, Montreal, Canada, 22/06/14. DOI: 10.1117/12.2055638
Betters CH, Leon-Saval SG, Bland-Hawthorn J, Richards SN, Birks TA, Gris-Sánchez I. PIMMS échelle: the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams. In Ramsay SK, MacLean IS, Takami H, editors, Proceedings of SPIE : Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V. Vol. 9147. SPIE. 2014. 91471I. Available from, DOI: 10.1117/12.2055638
Betters, Christopher H. ; Leon-Saval, Sergio G. ; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss ; Richards, Samuel N. ; Birks, Tim A. ; Gris-Sánchez, Itandehui. / PIMMS échelle : the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams. Proceedings of SPIE : Ground-based and Airborne Instrumentation for Astronomy V. editor / S. K. Ramsay ; I. S. MacLean ; H. Takami. Vol. 9147 SPIE, 2014.
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title = "PIMMS {\'e}chelle: the next generation of compact diffraction limited spectrographs for arbitrary input beams",
abstract = "PIMMS {\'e}chelle is an extension of previous PIMMS (photonic integrated multimode spectrograph) designs, enhanced by using an {\'e}chelle diffraction grating as the primary dispersing element for increased spectral band- width. The spectrograph operates at visible wavelengths (550 to 780nm), and is capable of capturing ∼100 nm of R > 60, 000 (λ/(triangle)λ) spectra in a single exposure. PIMMS {\'e}chelle uses a photonic lantern to convert an arbitrary (e.g. incoherent) input beam into N diffraction-limited outputs (i.e. N single-mode fibres). This allows a truly diffraction limited spectral resolution, while also decoupling the spectrograph design from the input source. Here both the photonic lantern and the spectrograph slit are formed using a single length of multi-core fibre. A 1x19 (1 multi-mode fiber to 19 single-mode fibres) photonic lantern is formed by tapering one end of the multi-core fibre, while the other end is used to form a TIGER mode slit (i.e. for a hexagonal grid with sufficient spacing and the correct orientations, the cores of the multi-core fibre can be dispersed such that they do not overlap without additional reformatting). The result is an exceptionally compact, shoebox sized, spectrograph that is constructed primarily from commercial off the shelf components. Here we present a brief overview of the {\'e}chelle spectrograph design, followed by results from on-sky testing of the breadboard mounted version of the spectrograph at the 'UK Schmidt Telescope'.",
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