Abstract

Due to its ability to be synthesised and used in a manner that does not produce CO2, hydrogen has gathered much attention as a sustainable energy vector. However, because elemental hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at standard temperature and pressure, it must be densified in order to be stored effectively, which has proven to be a difficult technical challenge. The current industrial state of the art for hydrogen storage is compression, whereby hydrogen is pressurised up to 70 MPa and stored in a carbon fibre reinforced polymer tank with an interior liner, made either of aluminium or a polymer. Compression has a number of flaws, including: a high energy penalty of compression; the high cost of the materials required to contain the pressure whilst maintaining a low tank mass; and an inherent safety risk. An alternative solution is the use of adsorption, a technique that uses the physical interaction between gas molecules and the solid surfaces of nanoporous materials to densify the hydrogen molecules.
This work focuses mainly on two microporous adsorbents: the polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1; and metal organic framework MOF-5. PIMs are polymeric materials composed of molecular chains that feature regular spiro-centres and rigid linkers, which cannot pack efficiently and leave free volume within their structures. PIM-1 is a bright yellow polymer that is soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as chloroform and THF, and forms robust, flexible films upon solvent casting, making it a highly attractive adsorbent [1]. However, PIM-1 films often show relatively disappointing BET surface areas of ~ 600 m2 g-1 in 77 K nitrogen isotherm tests [1], and this needs to be raised if the material could possibly be used to create a system that meets the United States Department of Energy targets for hydrogen storage [2]. This can be done by combining PIM-1 with another material, in this case the high surface area (~3000 m2 g-1) MOF-5, which has been the subject of industrial attention for solid-state hydrogen storage systems [3].
This work aims to synthesise both PIM-1 and MOF-5 separately, before combining them into composite materials. Characterisation is performed on all the aforementioned materials, mainly through adsorption isotherms of nitrogen (77 K, 0 – 0.1 MPa), CO2 (273 K, 0 – 2 MPa) and H2 (77 K, 0 – 20 MPa). He pycnometry and thermogravimetric analysis is also performed. The materials made are compared using this data, and any relationships noted are presented.
References:
[1] Budd PM, Elabas ES, Ghanem BS, Makhseed S, McKeown NB, Msayib KJ, et al. Solution-Processed, Organophilic Membrane Derived from a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity. Adv Mater 2004;16:456–9.
[2] U.S. Department of Energy. Target Explanation Document: Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles, U.S. DRIVE; 2015.
[3] Veenstra M, Yang J, Xu C, Purewal J, Gaab M, Arnold L, et al. Ford/BASF-SE/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review Proceedings, 2015
Original languageEnglish
Publication statusPublished - 2015
EventH2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference - University of Bath, Bath, UK United Kingdom
Duration: 14 Dec 201516 Dec 2015

Conference

ConferenceH2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference
CountryUK United Kingdom
CityBath
Period14/12/1516/12/15

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Hydrogen storage
Polymers
Hydrogen
Composite materials
Microporosity
Adsorbents
Nitrogen
Molecules
Free volume
Chloroform
Aluminum
Adsorption isotherms
Isotherms
Thermogravimetric analysis
Fuel cells
Casting
Compaction
Gases
Metals
Membranes

Cite this

Holyfield, L., Dawson, R., Noguera Diaz, A. J., Bennet, J., Weatherby, N., Burrows, A., & Mays, T. (2015). PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks. Abstract from H2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference, Bath, UK United Kingdom.

PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks. / Holyfield, Leighton; Dawson, Robert; Noguera Diaz, Antonio Jose; Bennet, Jack; Weatherby, Nick; Burrows, Andrew; Mays, Timothy.

2015. Abstract from H2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference, Bath, UK United Kingdom.

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract

Holyfield, L, Dawson, R, Noguera Diaz, AJ, Bennet, J, Weatherby, N, Burrows, A & Mays, T 2015, 'PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks' H2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference, Bath, UK United Kingdom, 14/12/15 - 16/12/15, .
Holyfield L, Dawson R, Noguera Diaz AJ, Bennet J, Weatherby N, Burrows A et al. PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks. 2015. Abstract from H2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference, Bath, UK United Kingdom.
Holyfield, Leighton ; Dawson, Robert ; Noguera Diaz, Antonio Jose ; Bennet, Jack ; Weatherby, Nick ; Burrows, Andrew ; Mays, Timothy. / PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks. Abstract from H2FC: Hydrogen & Fuel Cell SUPERGEN Researcher Conference, Bath, UK United Kingdom.
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T1 - PIM-MOF Composites for Use in Hybrid Hydrogen Storage Tanks

AU - Holyfield, Leighton

AU - Dawson, Robert

AU - Noguera Diaz, Antonio Jose

AU - Bennet, Jack

AU - Weatherby, Nick

AU - Burrows, Andrew

AU - Mays, Timothy

PY - 2015

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N2 - Due to its ability to be synthesised and used in a manner that does not produce CO2, hydrogen has gathered much attention as a sustainable energy vector. However, because elemental hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at standard temperature and pressure, it must be densified in order to be stored effectively, which has proven to be a difficult technical challenge. The current industrial state of the art for hydrogen storage is compression, whereby hydrogen is pressurised up to 70 MPa and stored in a carbon fibre reinforced polymer tank with an interior liner, made either of aluminium or a polymer. Compression has a number of flaws, including: a high energy penalty of compression; the high cost of the materials required to contain the pressure whilst maintaining a low tank mass; and an inherent safety risk. An alternative solution is the use of adsorption, a technique that uses the physical interaction between gas molecules and the solid surfaces of nanoporous materials to densify the hydrogen molecules.This work focuses mainly on two microporous adsorbents: the polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1; and metal organic framework MOF-5. PIMs are polymeric materials composed of molecular chains that feature regular spiro-centres and rigid linkers, which cannot pack efficiently and leave free volume within their structures. PIM-1 is a bright yellow polymer that is soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as chloroform and THF, and forms robust, flexible films upon solvent casting, making it a highly attractive adsorbent [1]. However, PIM-1 films often show relatively disappointing BET surface areas of ~ 600 m2 g-1 in 77 K nitrogen isotherm tests [1], and this needs to be raised if the material could possibly be used to create a system that meets the United States Department of Energy targets for hydrogen storage [2]. This can be done by combining PIM-1 with another material, in this case the high surface area (~3000 m2 g-1) MOF-5, which has been the subject of industrial attention for solid-state hydrogen storage systems [3].This work aims to synthesise both PIM-1 and MOF-5 separately, before combining them into composite materials. Characterisation is performed on all the aforementioned materials, mainly through adsorption isotherms of nitrogen (77 K, 0 – 0.1 MPa), CO2 (273 K, 0 – 2 MPa) and H2 (77 K, 0 – 20 MPa). He pycnometry and thermogravimetric analysis is also performed. The materials made are compared using this data, and any relationships noted are presented.References: [1] Budd PM, Elabas ES, Ghanem BS, Makhseed S, McKeown NB, Msayib KJ, et al. Solution-Processed, Organophilic Membrane Derived from a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity. Adv Mater 2004;16:456–9.[2] U.S. Department of Energy. Target Explanation Document: Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles, U.S. DRIVE; 2015.[3] Veenstra M, Yang J, Xu C, Purewal J, Gaab M, Arnold L, et al. Ford/BASF-SE/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review Proceedings, 2015

AB - Due to its ability to be synthesised and used in a manner that does not produce CO2, hydrogen has gathered much attention as a sustainable energy vector. However, because elemental hydrogen has a very low volumetric energy density at standard temperature and pressure, it must be densified in order to be stored effectively, which has proven to be a difficult technical challenge. The current industrial state of the art for hydrogen storage is compression, whereby hydrogen is pressurised up to 70 MPa and stored in a carbon fibre reinforced polymer tank with an interior liner, made either of aluminium or a polymer. Compression has a number of flaws, including: a high energy penalty of compression; the high cost of the materials required to contain the pressure whilst maintaining a low tank mass; and an inherent safety risk. An alternative solution is the use of adsorption, a technique that uses the physical interaction between gas molecules and the solid surfaces of nanoporous materials to densify the hydrogen molecules.This work focuses mainly on two microporous adsorbents: the polymer of intrinsic microporosity PIM-1; and metal organic framework MOF-5. PIMs are polymeric materials composed of molecular chains that feature regular spiro-centres and rigid linkers, which cannot pack efficiently and leave free volume within their structures. PIM-1 is a bright yellow polymer that is soluble in polar aprotic solvents such as chloroform and THF, and forms robust, flexible films upon solvent casting, making it a highly attractive adsorbent [1]. However, PIM-1 films often show relatively disappointing BET surface areas of ~ 600 m2 g-1 in 77 K nitrogen isotherm tests [1], and this needs to be raised if the material could possibly be used to create a system that meets the United States Department of Energy targets for hydrogen storage [2]. This can be done by combining PIM-1 with another material, in this case the high surface area (~3000 m2 g-1) MOF-5, which has been the subject of industrial attention for solid-state hydrogen storage systems [3].This work aims to synthesise both PIM-1 and MOF-5 separately, before combining them into composite materials. Characterisation is performed on all the aforementioned materials, mainly through adsorption isotherms of nitrogen (77 K, 0 – 0.1 MPa), CO2 (273 K, 0 – 2 MPa) and H2 (77 K, 0 – 20 MPa). He pycnometry and thermogravimetric analysis is also performed. The materials made are compared using this data, and any relationships noted are presented.References: [1] Budd PM, Elabas ES, Ghanem BS, Makhseed S, McKeown NB, Msayib KJ, et al. Solution-Processed, Organophilic Membrane Derived from a Polymer of Intrinsic Microporosity. Adv Mater 2004;16:456–9.[2] U.S. Department of Energy. Target Explanation Document: Onboard Hydrogen Storage for Light-Duty Fuel Cell Vehicles, U.S. DRIVE; 2015.[3] Veenstra M, Yang J, Xu C, Purewal J, Gaab M, Arnold L, et al. Ford/BASF-SE/UM Activities in Support of the Hydrogen Storage Engineering Center of Excellence. 2015 DOE Annual Merit Review Proceedings, 2015

M3 - Abstract

ER -