A new micromechanical model is proposed to analyse the piezoelectric properties of freeze-cast porous composite materials based on a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate-type (PZT) ceramics. The important influence of the composite microgeometry and the porous ceramic matrix on the piezoelectric coefficients d 3j and g 3j and the piezoelectric anisotropy factor d 33/|d 31 in the porosity range of mp = 0.2-0.6 is evaluated and discussed. The resulting piezoelectric parameters of parallel-connected freeze-cast composites with highly aligned pore channels are then compared to those of PZT-based porous materials with randomly distributed porosity. Due to the relatively large piezoelectric coefficients d 33 ∼ 102 pC N-1, g 33 ≈ 40-100 mV m N-1, anisotropy factor d 33/|d 31 ≈ 3-5 and the presence of aligned porous channels, the parallel-connected freeze-cast composite has advantages over conventional monolithic PZT-type ceramics (e.g. g 33 = 24.2 mV m N-1 and d 33/|d 31| = 2.2 in the PZT-5 ceramic) and is suitable for piezoelectric transducer, sensor, acoustic, and energy-harvesting applications.

Original languageEnglish
Article number125021
Number of pages37
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number12
Early online date22 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2019


  • freeze-cast porous composite
  • piezoelectric anisotropy
  • piezoelectric coefficients
  • porous medium

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Signal Processing
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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