new micromechanical model is proposed to analyse the piezoelectric properties of freeze-cast porous composite materials based on a ferroelectric lead zirconate titanate-type (PZT) ceramics. The important influence of the composite microgeometry and the porous ceramic matrix on the piezoelectric coefficients d_3j* and g_3j* and the piezoelectric anisotropy factors d_33* / |d_31*| in the porosity range of m_p = 0.2–0.6 is evaluated and discussed. The resulting piezoelectric parameters of parallel-connected freeze-cast composites with highly aligned pore channels are then compared to those of PZT-based porous materials with randomly distributed porosity. Due to the relatively large piezoelectric coefficients d_33* backsim10^2 pC N^-1, g_33* backsim 40–100 mV m N^-1, anisotropy factor / d_33* / |d_31*| cong 3–5 and the presence of aligned porous channels, the parallel-connected freeze-cast composite has advantages over conventional monolithic PZT-type ceramics (e.g. g_33 = 24.2 mV m N^-1 and d_33/ | d_31 | = 2.2 in the PZT-5 ceramic) and is suitable for piezoelectric transducer, sensor, acoustic, and energy-harvesting applications.
Original languageEnglish
Article number125021
Number of pages37
JournalSmart Materials and Structures
Issue number12
Early online date22 Oct 2019
Publication statusPublished - 15 Nov 2019


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